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Gira icyo umenya ku mateka n’inkomoko y’Umunsi Mukuru wa Noheli

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Gira icyo umenya ku mateka n’inkomoko y’Umunsi Mukuru wa Noheli

Tariki ya 25 Ukuboza buri mwaka, abakirisitu bose n’abemera Yezu Kristu bizihiza umunsi mukuru wa Noheli, ivuka rya Yezu Kristu.

Noheli ni iki? Bivuze iki?

Mu bisanzwe Noheli ni umunsi w’ibyishimo n’umunezero, kuko ni ho abakristu bibuka ivuka rya Yezu. Ibi ntibivuga ko Yezu yavutse ku itariki 25.

Ijambo Noheli rikomoka ku ijambo ry’Igifaransa “Noël”, naryo ryakomotse mu Kilatini “Natalis” bivuze “amavuka”. Mu cyongereza Noheli ikaba “Christmas”.

Mu Cyongereza, iri jambo ni inyunge (compound) aho rigizwe na “Christ” na “Mass”, aho rikomoka ku cyongereza cya kera “Christemass” nabyo biva ku cya kera cyane “Cristes mæsse” ryakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu 1038. Naryo rikaba rikomoka mu Kigereki n’Ikilatini, aho “Cristes” bikomoka ku Kigereki “Christos” na”mæsse” rikava ku Lilatini “missa”.

Uhereye hagati mu kinyejana cya 16 inyuguti X y’ikoromani yagiye ikoresheshwa nk’impinamagambo ya Christ.
Ni yo mpamvu benshi biyandikira Xmas aho kwandika Christmas.

Noheli ihurira he n’ivuka rya Yezu?

Ivuka rya Yezu ni yo ntangiriro rya kalendari ya Anno Domini tugenderaho umunsi wa none. Itangiriro ry’ubuzima bwa Yesu rero rifite agaciro cyane.

Umunsi wa noheli waba waremejwe kugirango uhurirane n’imboneko z’ukwezi kwa mbere kw’itumba (winter solstice ) kuko abaromani bawizihizaga ku itariki ya 25 Ukuboza buri mwaka.

N’ubwo bwose ari umunsi witabwaho cyane n’abakristo, bamwe mu batizera gikristo benshi bawizihiza nk’umunsi wo gusabana n’imiryango, no kuruhuka.

Mu myaka myinshi ya mbere y’ikinyejana cya 16 benshi mu banditsi bizeraga ko Yezu koko yavutse kuri iyo tariki ya 25/12.

Mu kinyejana cya cumi n’umunani ni bwo hagiye haboneka abandi bagiye bagerageza gusobanura ibya Noheli ari yo Christmas.

Urugero rworoshye ni Sir Isaac Newton yagerageje gusobanura ko iyo tariki yafashwe kugirango ihurirane n’imboneko y’ukwezi kubanziriza itumba (hiver), kandi mu gihe cya kera yizihizwaga ku itariki 25 Ukuboza.

Mu 1743, Umudage Paul Ernst Jablonski yagerageje gusobanura ko Christmas yashyizwe kuri 25 Ukuboza kugirango uhurirane n’umunsi wa kiromani wo kwizihiza izuba wa Dies Natalis Solis Invicti.

Ibi bigatuma we anavuga ko kubera iyo mpamvu Noheli wari umunsi wa gipagani. Amwe mu matorero ya Giprotestanti niko akibibona na bugingo ubu !

Mu 1889, Louis Duchesne yavuze ko Noheli yaba yarabariranyijwe nk’amezi icyenda (mbere yo kuvuka) Uhereye kuri 25 z’ukwa gatatu – Werurwe-, ukaba ariwo munsi bizihizaho isamwa rya Yezu, cyane cyane Kiliziya Gatolika).

Kuri kalendari y’abaroma, 25 Werurwe wari umunsi w’ukwezi kuzuye k’umuhindo (byumvikane ko ibihe bidahuye n’ibyo mu Rwanda).

N’ubwo bigoye gusobanura amateka yose, ikigaragara neza ni uko Noheli yizihijwe bwa mbere nk’umunsi w’ivuka rya Yezu kuri 25 Ukuboza umwaka wa 354.

Ibi bisobanuye neza mu nyandiko yiswe (Chronography of 354), ikaba ari imwe mu nyandiko zarokotse zandikiwe i Roma muri 354 nyuma ya Yezu.

Noheli ni umwe mu minsi yizihizwa cyane ku isi, ariko si ko byahoze. Nyuma y’imyivumbagatanyo y’abaporotesitanti mu myaka ya za 1500, amwe mu matorero ya giprotesitanti yanze kujya yizihiza Noheli, akavuga ko ari ibisigarizwa by’ibyarangaga ubupapa.

Uko imyaka yagiye ishira ariko cyane cyane uko bigaragara ubu, Noheli isigaye yizihizwa hafi n’abantu bose b’amadini anyuranye, cyane cyane ko no hanze y’urusengero ari umunsi wafashwe nk’ikiruhuko gikomeye cyane kurusha ibindi mu mwaka !

Mu bihugu bigira umubare muto w’Abakristu, naho ngo ntibibuza ko uyu munsi wa Noheli uba ari konji. Igihugu nka Korea, ahagaragara umubare muke w’Abakristu, ngo usanga bizihiza Noheli ku buryo budasanzwe, kuko mu gihugu hose uhasanga imitako y’uyu munsi. Ibihugu bitizihiza umunsi wa Noheli ni nk’igihugu cy’Ubushinwa (havuyemo Hongo Kongo na Macao), Ubuyapani, Arabiya Sawudite, Aligeriya, Tayilande, Nepali, Irani, Turukiya na Koreya ya Ruguru.

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