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Ubusobanuro, inkomoko n’imiterere y’abantu bitwa Rwanda

izindi nkuru

Ubusobanuro, inkomoko n’imiterere y’abantu bitwa Rwanda

Nubwo izina “Rwanda” rizwi kandi rikoreshwa na benshi, ni bake cyane bazi inkomoko yaryo ndetse n’icyo risobanuye. Amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko rwabyawe na Gasabo, ari naho havuye inyito “U Rwanda rwa Gasabo”; Gasabo cyari igihugu gito cyari ku nkombe z’ikiyaga cya Muhazi. 
Umusizi akaba n’umwanditsi, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu avuga ko Gasabo yari iherereye ahari imirenge ya Nduba, Rutunga, Rusororo, Gikomero, Bumbogo ndetse n’igice cy’ Umurenge wa Ndera kuri ibi. Ngo iki gihugu cyadukanye gahunda (…)

Nubwo izina “Rwanda” rizwi kandi rikoreshwa na benshi, ni bake cyane bazi inkomoko yaryo ndetse n’icyo risobanuye. Amateka y’u Rwanda agaragaza ko rwabyawe na Gasabo, ari naho havuye inyito “U Rwanda rwa Gasabo”; Gasabo cyari igihugu gito cyari ku nkombe z’ikiyaga cya Muhazi.

Umusizi akaba n’umwanditsi, Nsanzabera Jean de Dieu avuga ko Gasabo yari iherereye ahari imirenge ya Nduba, Rutunga, Rusororo, Gikomero, Bumbogo ndetse n’igice cy’ Umurenge wa Ndera kuri ibi. Ngo iki gihugu cyadukanye gahunda yo kwigarurira ibindi bihugu mu rwego rwo kwiyagura, nyuma y’izo gahunda kuri ubu gifite ubuso bwa metero kare 26,338.

Iki gihugu kigeze kurenga uko kingana ubu nk’uko Alexis Kagame yabyanditse mu gitabo “Ibisigo by’Abami mu Rwanda” (La Poésie Dynastique au Rwanda), biza guhinduka nyuma gato y’intambara ya mbere y’isi (1920), gisigara kingana uko kingana ubu.

Nk’uko byemezwa n’abagize Inteko Izirikana, izina “Rwanda” rifite inkomoko ndetse n’igisobanuro mu mateka y’Abanyarwanda.

Inkomoko…

Izina u Rwanda ryakomotse kuri Ruganzu wa Mbere Bwimba wari ku ngoma ahasaga mu w’1312 kugeza mu w’1345, ubwo yari atangiye kugaba ibitero byo kwigarurira ibindi bihugu ahereye ku gihugu cy‘i Gisaka, nk’uko bigaragara mu gitabo “Inkomoko z’u Rwanda rushya: Ubwami bw’abanyiginya” cyanditswe na Jan Vansina ku ipaji yacyo ya 20.

Nk’ uko kandi igitabo cyitwa “Ingorane n’ibyago byo kwibuka no kwibagirwa mu Rwanda” (Complexities and Dangers of Remembering and Forgetting in Rwanda) cyanditswe na Olivier Nyirubugara ku ipaji yacyo ya 114 kibivuga, Bwimba yagiye yita “Rwanda” ahantu hatandukanye Abanyiginya bagiye bigarurira mu gihe barimo bagura igihugu. Ni yo mpamvu iri zina urisanga mu Ntara ya Busoga iri mu burasirazuba bwa Uganda, kimwe no muri Nkole ndetse ndetse na Kalemi (Congo) mu burengerazuba bw’ikiyaga cya Tanganyika. Naho ino hakaba u Rwanda rwa Binaga ho mu Rweya (Mutara), Rwanda rwa Gasabo (banahita Rwanda rwa Ndanyoye) mu Karere ka Gasabo ahahoze Komini Gikomero, ndetse n’u Rwanda rwa Kamonyi (Komini Taba).

 

Ikarita y’u Rwanda rwa mbere, rutaragabanywa

Aha hose Abanyiginya bahatsinze mu rugamba rwo kwigarurira ibindi bihugu, bityo bakavuga ko habaye igice cy’igihugu cyabo cya Gasabo maze bakavuga ko ari u Rwanda rwa Gasabo, bisobanura igice cyiyongeye kuri Gasabo; bityo u Rwanda rukaba ari ingobyi y’ingoma y’Abanyiginya.

Rwanda rwa Gasabo yaje kuba Rwanda rugari rwa Gasabo nyuma y’aho umwuzukuru wa Ruganzu I Bwimba witwa Kigeli I Mukobanya wabayeho ahasaga mu w’1378 kugeza mu w’1411, ubwo yagabaga igitero mu Bwanacyambwe.

Igitabo “Rwanda n’ubutegetsi bw’i Burayi” (Le Rwanda et le Pouvoir Européen 1894-1952) cyanditswe na Innocent Nsengimana kivuga ko Mukobanya yishe Umwami waho witwaga Nkuba ya Nyabakonjo, niko kuhita KIGALI byo kubereka ko abarushije isumbwe agahita akuraho izina ryabo. Kwitwa Kigali, ntibyakuyeho kuba mu Bwanacyambwe, ariko byakuyeho inyito “Kigali yo mu Bwanacyambwe” hitwa “Mu Bwanacyambwe bwa Kigali”. Kuva icyo gihe, ndavuga guhera muri icyo kibariro nyine (ku Ngoma ya Ruganzu Bwimba) niho havuye inyito «Rwanda Rugari rwa Gasabo».

Igisobanuro…

Umusaza Kaberuka, Perezida w’Inteko Izirikana yatangaje ko ijambo “Rwanda” rituruka ku nshinga “Kwanda” bivuga “Gukwira” hirya no hino. Iri zina rikaba rishaka gusobanura ko ari igihugu cyaguwe hakoreshejwe imbaraga nyinshi.

Yagize ati “kwita iri zina igihugu cy’i Gasabo byavuye ahanini ku ngufu zakoreshejwe n’Abami bacyo mu kucyagura.”

Ibi kandi bishimangirwa n’umwanditsi Olivier Nyirubugara uvuga ko iyi nyito yagendeye ku mbaraga zaguye igihugu cyari gito cyane kikaba kinini. Nyuma yo kwaguka kikaruta n’uko kingana ubu, u Rwanda rwaje kugabanywa n’abakoloni. Bimwe mu bice byarwo ubisanga muri bimwe mu bihugu biriyuriye.

Umusizi Nsanzabera kandi avuga ko iki gihugu kiswe Rwanda ahagana mu 1345 nyuma yo kwigarurira Uburiza.

Yagize ati “Igihugu cyiswe Rwanda nyuma yo kwigarurira Uburiza nka kimwe mu bihugu 29 byaje kongerwa kuri Gasabo mu kwiyagura.”

Kigali byo bivuga “Igihugu cyagutse kiyongera mu mpande zose, kikaba kigali”.

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