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URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA MBERE)

Mortiers, mitrailleuses, urufaya rw amabombe byatwituragaho ubutitsa uko bukeye nuko bwije, yari mw ijoro ariko twabashaga kubona aba vietm Minh bamanuka imisozi ndetse abashinzwe kurashisha ibibunda biremereye bamisha amasasu yabo ku birindiro by abafaransa bari bakambitse aha muri Dien Bien Phu mu ntera ya km 16 z uburebure ndetse n umunani (8) z ubugari aha hari hahuriye abasirikare ibihumbi 94 (94 000) aho abavietmihn bari ibihumbi 80 (80 000) naho abafaransa bari ibihumbi 14 (14 000). Uru rwari urugamba rukomeye rwari rubayeho nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi. Aha amategeko y intambara abavietminh ntibayumvaga nyuma y intsinzi iruhanyije bari bagize niko gufata bunyago abasirikare ibihumbi 12 (12 000) b abafaransa bakabica babatoteje harokotse mbarwa hataha abasaga gato ibihumbi 3 (3 000) gusa buzuye intimba, ubwoba n ikimwaro bari bakuye muri Vietnam aha hari mu 1954. Aha abafaransa bishwe barashwe bari basaga gato ibihumbi 8 (8 000) nabwo babakuyemo inzara n amenyo nyuma yo gufungirwa mu mazi mu gihe kitari gito.

Intambara nka kimwe mu bikorwa byaranzwe ndetse bwamenyerewe mu mibereho y ikiremwamuntu zagiye zihindura imiterere y ubutegetsi ndetse n imibereho y abantu mu gace kamwe cyangwa akandi mw isi ndetse no mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Dien Bien Phu aha ni hamwe mu hapfukamishije abafaransa mu mateka y intambara mu bihe bya vuba ndetse nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi kuko aha naho bapfukamishijwe bikomeye n igisirikare cy abanazi ba Hitler Wehrmacht kigizwe na Heer yo ku butaka, Kriegsmarine bo mu mazi ndetse na Luftwaffe yarwaniraga mu kirere. Intambara yo muri Vietnam yiswe the First Indochina war aho yamaze imyaka isaga 8 yashyizweho akadomo n intsinzi y abarwanyi b abavietmihn bamaze guha isomo rya gisirikare abafaransa bari abakoroni bagataha bimyiza imoso ari bo barwanye intambara ndetse n abanyamerika babateraga inkunga y amafaranga aho batanze isaga miriyoni 300 z amadollars. Ibi byose byigisha ko abagenerari b ibihugu bikomeye mu bya gisirikare bakunda gusuzugura abo bahanganye nabo bibwira ko nta bushobozi mu gukora intambara bafite cyangwa se bashoboye ibi bikaganisha ku kurimburira rimwe ingabo zabo bayoboye no guhindura igice cyaho intsinzi ya gisirikare igana. Mbere yuko tuvuga ku mutwe w inkuru yacu y uyu munsi, reka turebere hamwe inkomoko ndetse n intandaro by uru rugamba duhereye atari kure cyane mu mizi kugira ngo tugire ishusho y imvano y iyi ntambara.

Ibi byose byatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19 ubwo ibihugu byo mu Burayi byiyita “Old Continent” byajyaga mu masiganwa yo kwigwizaho ibihugu byo gukoroniza ngo babone aho bakura ibikoresho nkenerwa basubiza mu bihugu byabo ngo bahaze inganda zabo zari zicyaduka, nibwo abafaransa nabo batangiraga ukwisuka muri Indochine agace kari muri Aziya ahagana muri 1859 ndetse mu 1885 bari baramaze kwigarurira ibice binini byaho. Indochina y abafaransa yashinzwe ku itariki 17 Ukwakira 1887 aho bahurizaga hamwe Vietnam (yarigizwe na Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina), ubwami bwa Cambodia, na Laos  iyi yongereweho nyuma y intambara Franco-Siamese War mu mwaka w i 1893 bakabigira colonies zabo. Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rwaje nk iherezo ry ubukoroni bw abafaransa muri Indochina, ariko ntibahavuye mu mahoro byasabye kunyura mu ntambara intambara itaroroshye cyangwa ngo yihute kuko yararambye imara imyaka umunani (8) yose ishyamiranyije abavietminh ndetse n abafaransa bari banafite mu ngabo zabo abalaos, abanyamaroc, abanyarijeriya, abanyacambodia ndetse n abatais. Nyamara intambara iza nk igisubizo cya nyuma cya nyuma kuko izindi nzira z ibiganiro mbese zose zose zananiwe impande ebyiri zishyamiranye zitumvikana cyangwa zitabyumva kimwe.

Nshuti reka igice cya mbere tugihinire aha, ntuzacikwe n ibindi bice aho tuzavuga byimbitse kuri uru rugamba ndetse n intandaro zayo tutibagiwe n ingaruka zayiturutseho.
Murakoze murakarama!!!!

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"Until the lions have their own historians, the history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter." ~African proverb A Universe and history lover

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Amateka

Ibintu by’ingenzi wamenya ku mwambaro wa Bikini uharawe n’abatari bake

Muri iki gihe, umwambaro wa Bikini wambarwa n’abakobwa n’abagore bagiye mu bikorwa byo kwidagadura,koga, no kumurika imideri. Uri mu myenda ikunzwe cyane ndetse abantu biganjemo abaririmbyi n’abahanzi bakomeye ku isi ntibatinya kuyambara ‘n’ahatari ku mazi.

Umunyamideli Marilyn Monroe mu mwambaro wa Bikini mu 1962 yasohokeye ku mazi

Imyaka 74 irashize, umwambaro wa Bikini umenyekanye cyane ndetse ugatangira gukoreshwa n’abatari bake.Bikini yatangiye kwambarwa mu ruhame, bwa mbere ku itariki ya 5 Nyakanga 1946 ndetse yamaganirwa kure n’abatari bake bavuga ko ikurura ubusambanyi ikanatatira umuco gakondo.

Louis Reard, Umufaransa wakoze bikini bwa mbere yagowe no kubona abanyamideli bayimurika, uwabashije kumwemerera kuyambara akaba ari umunyamideli wamurikaga imideli yambaye ubusa Michelle Bernardine wafatwaga nka utiyubashye.

Reard wari warasigaranye iduka rya nyina ryacuruzaga imyenda y’imbere yahisemo gukora bikini igizwe n’ikariso n’isutiya.
Uyu mwambaro wafashije abatari bake kwiyambika mu gihe kigoranye cy’intambara, aho kubona umwenda byari bigoye.

Nubwo igihe uyu mwambaro washyirwaga hanze, umunyamideli we Michele Bernardini yabonye amabaruwa ibihumbi 500 by’abamushyigikiye, Vatican yo yahise ivuga ko kwambara bikini ari icyaha.

Ibihugu birimo u Butaliyani, u Bubiligi, Espagne, Portugal na Australia nabyo byayamaganiye kure uyu mwambaro.Uko iminsi yagiye ishira uyu mwambaro watangiye gukundwa aho wabanje gufatwa nk’ikimenyetso cyo kwibohora kw’abagore bari babangamiwe n’imyambaro bajyanaga ku mazi.

Daily Mail dukesha iyi nkuru ivuga ko mu 1951 aribwo uwitwa Eric Morley yatangije irushanwa ry’abambaye bikini (The Festival Bikini Contest) ryaje guhinduka irushanwa rya Nyampinga w’isi (Miss World).
Kubera iri rushanwa, Bikini yarushijeho gukundwa ku buryo ibyamamare byariho muri iyi myaka birimo Marilyn Monroe byatangiye kujya mu birori n’amaserukiramuco ariyo byambaye.

Bikini yahise kandi itangira gufatwa nk’umwambaro ugaragaza imiterere itandukanye y’abagore ari nako bikimeze kugeza ubu.
Nubwo Bikini yamaganwe ubwo yashyirwaga hanze mu 1946 , sibwo yari ibayeho bwa mbere kuko nk’abasuye ikirwa cya Sicily bemeza ko hari amashusho agaragaza abagore babayeho mu kinyejana cya kane bagaragaye bayambaye.

Nguku uko Bikini ya mbere yari iteye. 

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Amateka

Sobanukirwa inkomoko y’ubuzima bwo kuri iyi si (VIDEO)

Isi dutuyeho yabayeho mu myaka n’imyaka ishize,ubu tuyiriho ihehereye,iriho ubuzima bwuzuye n’ubwo muntu we atabura gupfa,wakibaza uti ese niko yahozeho? ese mbere y’uko ibaho hari iki? wihera mu rujijo rero kuko YEGOB iri hano kugira usobanukirwe.

Ibi byabaye mu myaka isaga miliyari 5 ishize nk’uko Gentil Gedeon abitangaza mu kiganiro cye acisha kuri YouTube kitwa “inyanja twogamo”.ngo ubwo izuba ryari rigaragiwe n’umukungu ,uyu mukungugu waje guhinguka ibibuye binini kubw’imbaraga rukuruzi (Gravitational Force).uko iminsi yagiye ishira ibi bibuye (asteroids) byagiye byisekuranaho ikora imibumbe harimo n’isi dutuyeho.

Ibindi byose n’uko ubuzima bwaje ku isi dutuye mwabisanga muri iyi video.

 

Source:Gentil Gedeo official

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RPG (ROCKET PROPELLED GRENADE)

Tariki ya 01 Ukwakira 1990 imyaka 3o irashize hatangijwe urugamba rwo kubohoza u Rwanda, urugamba rwatwaye imyaka ine rugahagarikwa habayeho itsinzi ya RPF Inkotanyi, itsinzi itarigeze ibyinwa nka zimwe mu ntsinzi za gisirikare bitewe nuko RPF yarimaze guhagarika jenoside yakorerwaga abatutsi aho miriyoni irenga bishwe bazira ko bari abatutsi. Uyu munsi nk umunsi wo “gukunda igihugu” bizwi mu rurimi rw icyongereza nka “Patriotism Day” reka tuvuge ku ntwaro yamamaye mw isi ndetse ari nayo yakoreshejwe mu gutangiza urugamba rwo kwibohora. Imyaka mirongo itatu irashize umunsi ku munsi ubwo abasore n inkumi barangajwe imbere na Late Maj General Fred Gisa Rwigema bateye position y ingabo za Habyarimana zitwaga FAR niko guhera Kagitumba nabwo mu mayeri n ibanga rihambaye ritigeze ribaho, aha umupaka w u Rwanda bawurasheho bakoresheje imbunda ya Rocket Propelled Grenade aka RPG  mu magambo y impine. Iyi RPG niyo tugarukaho kuri uyu munsi tureba iyariyo, aho yaturutse ndetse n ibindi byinshi.

RPG-7 yitwa Ruchnoy Protivonkoviy Granatomyot mu kirusi ni imbunda irashishwa iri ku rutugu aho ushyiramo ama propelled grenades zikarasa ku bantu cyangwa udutanks twa Gisirikare tudafite ubwirinzi buhambaye . Iyi yaje ikurikiye RPG-2 izi zose zikozwe n igihugu cy abasoviyeti bikozwe na company yitwa Bazalt ahagana muri za 1950s naza 1960s. RPG zakoreshejwe mu ntambara zabayeho ahenshi ku migabane yose mu mateka ya vuba y ikiremwa muntu. Iyi launcher ifite cyangwa se igizwe na steel tube ya milimeterp 40 muri diametre , 95.3 santimetero z uburebure ndetse igapima ibiro 7. Agace ko hagati kagizwe n imbaho aho karinda uyirashisha ubushyuhe mu gihe ari kuyirashisha.

BIMWE MU BYEREKEYE RPG-7
RPG-7 detached.jpg
Ubwoko bwayo Rocket-propelled grenade launcher
Aho yakomotse Leta zunze ubumwe  z abasovieti
IGIHE YAKORESHEREJWE
In service 1961–kugeza ubu
AMATEKA Y IMIKORERE YAYO
Uwayubatse Bazalt
Umwaka yayubatsemo 1958
Abayihanze Bazalt na Degtyarev plant (Uburusiya)
Imyaka zakozwe 1958–kugeza magingo aya
9,000,000+
Variants RPG-7V2 (inshya iheruka)
RPG-7D3 (paratrooper)
Type 69 RPG (Ubushinwa)
RPG-7USA (Airtronic)
IBIPIMO BYAYO
Ibiro 6.3 kg
7 kg
Uburebure 950 mm

Cartridge 85mm
Caliber 40 mm
Muzzle velocity 115 m/s (itangira)
300m/s (iri mu kirere)
Effective firing range 330  (PG-7V)
Maximum firing range 700 m (OG-7V)
(self detonates at ≈920 m)
Sights PGO-7 (2.7×), UP-7V Telescopic sight and 1PN51/1PN58 night vision sights
Red dot reflex sight

Uburyo ndetse n ibice bigize RPG:

Rocket Propelled Grenades

Inside of an RPG’s three sections.
I) The head ifite:

  1. trigger
  2. conductive cone
  3. aerodynamic fairing
  4. conical liner
  5. body
  6. explosive
  7. conductor
  8. detonator

II) The rocket motor ikubiyemo ibice bikurikira:

  1. nozzle block
  2. nozzle
  3. motor body
  4. propellant
  5. motor rear
  6. ignition primer

III) The booster charge igizwe na:

  1. fin
  2. cartridge
  3. charge
  4. turbine
  5. tracer
  6. foam wad
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URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA GATATU)

Nkuko twari twabasobanuriye mu gice cyabanje imitwe y ingabo tugarukaho muri uru rugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu ubu rero turaje turebere uko uru rugamba rwagenze ndetse n amakosa yakozwemo kugira ngo itsinzi ihite ihindura uruhande byihuse mu kanya nkako guhumbya nibwo mu mugambi ukoranywe ubuhubutsi bwinshi w abafaransa wabapfubanaga ubundi bahinduka umuhigo w amenyo w abavietminh niko kubarimbura kakahava. Utarabashije gusoma ibice bibanza wakanda kuri iyi link https://yegob.rw/urugamba-rwa-dien-bien-phu-igice-cya-kabiri/ maze usome ibice byabanje kugira ngo ubashe gusobanukirwa n igice cya gatatu udatangirira hagati.

Mu mpera z intambara ya kabiri y isi (WW II) nibwo Jenerari Vo Nguyen Giap yacengezaga abasirikare be b abavietminh muri Vietnam yari yarigaruriwe n abayapani mu myaka yaza 1940s niko gushinga inyeshyamba zabohozaga Vietnam barwana intambara ya guerrilla warfare. Niko babohozaga amajyaruguru ya Vietnam ku bwinshi n abayapani batsindwa intambara ariko basubira inyuma nyuma yaho babohora Hanoi bayigira umurwa mukuru niko Ho Chi Minh yahitaga atangaza ko Independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam yigenze bamaze gutsinda abayapani babasubiza inyuma nyamara abafaransa bari barikunywe muri ako gace niko gushaka gusubirayo banga kwemera ubwigenge bwa Vietnam n agace ka Indochina bari barigaruriye mu myaka ya za 1880s. Ubwo rero abafaransa niko gushoza intambara kuri leta nshya yari yigenze nyuma bakahahurira n uruvagusenya bahakura ikimwaro batari barigeze mu mateka ya vuba nkuko batakazaga colonies zabo ku mugabane wa Amerika.

Tariki 23 Ugushyingo 1946 nibwo abafaransa mu mato yabo barashe ibisasu ku mujyi ufite n icyambu wa Haiphong niko kwica abasivire b abanya Vietnam 6 000 nuko umujinya n uburakari by abavietminh n abaturage babari inyuma biyemeza kwirukana umufaransa aho ariho hose mu gihugu cyabo. Barahirira ko bazaruhuka aruko nta mufaransa usigaye muri Vietnam cyangwa se bose bagapfa bagashira babigerageza. Uku niko intambara ya Indochine yatangiye intambara yatangiye gusa intambara byeruye yatangiye ku matariki ya 19 Ukuboza 1946 irangira ku itariki 1 Kanama 1954 (Imyaka 7, amezi 7, icyumweru 1 n iminsi 6) nubwo bitabuza ko mu 1945 mu majyepfo ya Vietnam abafaransa bakozanyagaho n abaVietminh gusa bitarakomera ngo bajye mu ntambara yeruye. Mu ncamake y intambara ya mbere yo muri Indochina nuku twabiboneramo mbere yuko dukomezanya n urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rubarizwamo aha ndetse rwanashize akadomo ku jambo Ubufaransa bwari bufite aha muri kano gace.

ABARI BAHANGANYE
 Repubulika iharanira Demokarasi ya Vietnam

Việt Minh

Lao Issara (1945–1949)
Pathet Lao (1949–1954)
Khmer Issarak

·          United Issarak Front
(1950–1954)

Abakoranabushake b abayapani

 Ubufaransa

·          Indochina y abafaransa
(1945–1954)

·          Ubwami bwa Cambodia
(1946–1954)

·          Ubwami bwa Laos
(1947–1954)

·          Igihugu cya Vietnam
(1949–1954)

ABATEGETSI N ABAGABA B INGABO
 Hồ Chí Minh
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Phạm Văn Đồng
Trường Chinh
Lê Duẩn
Lê Đức Thọ
Souphanouvong
Kaysone Phomvihane
Son Ngoc Minh
Tou Samouth
 Philippe Leclerc
Jean-Étienne Valluy
Roger Blaizot
Marcel Carpentier
Jean de Tassigny
Raoul Salan
Henri Navarre
Bảo Đại
Ngô Đình Diệm
Norodom Sihanouk
Sisavang Vong
UMUBARE W INGABO
Việt Minh:
Abasirikare bahoraho: 125,000
Regional: 75,000
Abasirikare badahoraho: 250,000
Ababaye mu gisirikare cy Ubuyapani: ~5,000
Total: ~450,000
Ubufaransa:
Expeditionary Corps: 190,000
Local Auxiliary: 55,000
Abarwanyi bavuye mu gihugu cya  Vietnam (Vietnam y amajyepfo):
150,000

Total: ~395,000

ABASIGIWE UBUMUGA& N ABAHASIZE UBUZIMA
Việt Minh:
175,000–300,000 bapfuye cyangwa babuze (bikwekwa ndetse bivugwa n abanditsi bo mu burengerazuba)
191,605 bapfuye cyangwa babuze (imibare yatanzwe na leta ya kidemokarasiya ya Vietnam)
French Union:
75,581 bishwe (20,524 b abafaransa)
64,127 bakomeretse
40,000 bafashwe matekwa
Leta ya Vietnam (Vietnam y amajyepfo):
58,877 bapfuye cyangwa babuze
Total: ~134,500 bapfuye cyangwa babuze
400,000–842,707 Bishwe bose
125,000–400,000 Abasivire bishwe bose

 

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URUGANDA RWA VOLKSWAGEN

Uruganda rwa Volkswagen ni uruganda rukomoka mu Budage rwashinzwe mu mwaka 1937 i Berlin bikozwe na German Labour Front yari ifite icyicaro muri Wolfsburg. Volkswagen mu cyongereza bisobanura “people’s car” bisobanura “imodoka ya rubanda”. Ibi byaje ubwo mu Budage bwo muri za 1930 abantu bangana n’ 1 kuri 50 b abadage ariwe wabashaga gutunga imodoka abandi basigaye bashobora kuba bakwigurira amapikipiki. Nyuma yuko habayeho gahunda za private projects mu byerekeye ibinyabiziga, ahagana mu 1934 nibwo Adolph Hitler wari uyoboye Ubudage yabyinjiragamo niko gutegeka ko hakubakwa imodoka z abantu ku giti cyabo zitwara abantu babiri imbere ndetse n abana 3 inyuma inyarukira ku muvuduko w ibirometero 100 ku isaha kugira ngo ashimangire gahunda ye yo gutunga ibinyabiziga ku rwego buri muturage aba afite iye modoka. Volkswagen niyo founding ikanaba umunyamuryango wa Volkswagen Group, Corporation iri ku rwego mpuzamahanga igenzura inganda zindi zikora amoko atandukanye y imodoka zirimo Audi, SEAT, Porsche, Lamborghini, Bentley, Bugatti, Scania, MAN, na Škoda.

Nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi, uru ruganda rwari rwarasenyutse nk izindi zose zo mu Budage rwaje kwisanga ruri mu marembera aho rwabarizwaga mu gice cyari cyarahawe abongereza mucyitwaga Western Germany cyangwa se Ubudage bw Uburengerazuba. Muri iki gihe kandi bagabanyirijwe ingano y imodoka bakoraga kuburyo zageze ku gihumbi gusa bingana na 10% y izo bakoraga 1936 nabwo indi mpamvu ikaba yari ukubera ko batashoboraga kubona bimwe mu bice bigize imodoka kuko batabyikoreraga bikaba byaraturukaga muri Eastern Germany yari yarafashwe n abasoviyeti. Ford ndetse n abandi banyenganda mu by ibinyabiziga banze gushora amafaranga ndetse no kuba bagura Volkswagen yari iyobowe na Major Ivan Hirst w umwongereza. Heinrich Nordhoff wari assistant wa Hirst niwe wasigiwe uru ruganda ubwo Major Ivan Hirst yaruvagamo nuko nibwo Volkswagen yiyubatse munsi y ubuyobozi bwa Heinrich Nordhoff. Imodoka za VW zabanje kugurishwa muri Amerika na Canada muri za 1950s nabwo zikaza ari nke ariko cyane cyane ama sedans ariyo akunzwe kuko mu 1973 bari bamaze gukora imodoka miriyoni 16.

Mu mwaka wa 2018 habayeho gusohora ingano y imodoka igera muri miriyoni 10.8 bikaba ari ko byari byagenze mu mwaka wawubanjirije. Volkswagen igira amashami menshi cyane mw isi ari ayo gukora imodoka cyangwa kuziteranya. Inganda zabo tuzisanga nko muri Mexico, leta zunze ubumwe z Amerika, Slovakia, China, India, Russia, Malaysia, Brazil, Argentina, Portugal,

Spain, Poland, the Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda, Kenya and South Africa. Kuva uru ruganda rwashingwa, ngaya amoko y imodoka agera muri za mirongo itanu (50+) rwakoze. Hari Amarok, Arteon, Beetle, Bora, Brasilia, Caddy, California, Caaravelle, Citi Golf, Clasico, Corrado, Derby, Eos, Fox, Gol, Golf, Iltis, Jetta, Karmann Ghia, Lavida, Lupo, Magotan, Multivan, Parati, Passat, Passat (North America), Passat CC, Passat Variant, Phaeton, Polo, Polo Vivo Dune, Quantum, Rabbit, Routan, SP2, Sagitar, Saveiro, Scirocco, Sharan, Suran, T-Cross, T-Roc, Teramont, Tiguan, Tuareg, Touran, Transporter, Up, Variant VII, Vento ndetse na Voyage.

MODERI ZA VW ZACURUJWE CYANE MU 2019
Rank MODERI IZAKOZWE
1 Tiguan 910,126
2 Polo/Virtus/Vento/Ameo 706,052
3 Golf 679,351
4 Jetta/Sagitar 610,327
5 Passat/Magotan 543,706
6 Lavida 514,698
7 Bora 345,077
8 T-Roc 328,069
9 T-Cross 274,071
10 Santana 244,132

 

Uru ruganda mu mwaka wa 2018 mu kwezi kwa Kamena nibwo rwatangiye imirimo yarwo yo guteranya imodoka (assembling cars) mu Rwanda, aho bateranyiriza ibice by imodoka bitandukanye bivuye hanze y u Rwanda nko muri Afrika y epfo, muri leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika ndetse no muri Argentina byose byagezwa mu Rwanda bikaba byatwara iminsi 2 kugira ngo imodoka ibe irangije guteranwa. Ishami rya Volkswagen mu Rwanda ryatangaje ko mu myaka ya mbere ruzajya rukora imodoka 1 000 mu mwaka kugira ngo rube rwahaza isoko rihari. Uru ruganda kandi ishami ry u Rwanda rukora sub-brands za VW nka Polo, Passat, Tiguan, Teramont ndetse na Amarok ndetse no mu mwaka ushize wa 2019 mu kwezi k Ukwakira 29 nibwo mu Rwanda bamuritse electric Golf car (e-Golf) aho hari ubufatanye hagati ya Volkswagen ndetse na Siemens.

VW Polo

VW Passat

VW Tiguan

VW Teramont

VW Amarok

Murakoze reka duhinire aha n ah ubutaha
Mugire amahoro n umugisha by Imana!!!

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