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Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu (Igice cya kane)

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Mbere yuko dukomezanya n urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu nuko intambara yatangiye muri Vietnam mu mwaka w 1946. Mu kwezi kwa kabiri ko muri uwo mwaka Ubushinwa n Ubufaransa basinyanye amasezerano yemereraga igisirikare cy abafaransa kugaruka mu majyaruguru ya Vietnam. Ku itariki 6 z ukwa gatatu nibwo Ho Chi Minh yemereraga ingabo z Abafaransa kugaruka nyuma yuko Ubufaransa bwemeye bukanubaha ukwigenga kwa Vietnam y amajyaruguru, ibintu bitigeze bishoboka na rimwe. Nuko mu kwezi kwa gatatu ingabo z abashinwa ziva mu ntara za Vietnam na Hanoi. Niba aribwo ugitangira gusoma kugira ngo usobanukirwe imvo n imvano wasoma ibice byabanje https://yegob.rw/urugamba-rwa-dien-bien-phu-igice-cya-gatatu/ ukarushaho gusobanukirwa.

Mu kwezi kwa gatanu Ho Chi Minh yafashe urugendo yerekeza mu Bufaransa agira ngo asabe ubwigenge busesuye bwa Vietnam ariko ibi ntibyari gushoboka niko gutuma uwari guverineri w abafaransa d’ Argenlieu guhita aha ubwigenge Cochin-china ariyo Vietnam y amajyepfo ihinduka igihugu cyigenga. Nyuma yuko uwari Perezida w abafaransa Charles de Gaulle atangarje ko Ubufaransa buzagumana ibice bya za colonies zabwo ahagana muri Kanama, ingabo z abafaransa zitangira gutangira supplies n ibikoresho by abaviet Minh ahagana mu Kwakira muri Haiphong no mu nkengero zayo.

Tariki 20 z Ugushyingo mu 1946 intambara irota hagati y abafaransa n abaviet Minh muri Haiphong nuko iba intandaro y intambara ya mbere ya Indochina aho abaturage babarirwa hagati y 2000 n 6000 nyuma yuko amato y abafaransa barashe ku mujyi n icyambu cya Haiphong. Ingabo 30 000 by abavietminh niko guhita bagaba ibitero ku birindiro by ingabo z abafaransa byari Haiphong tariki 19 Ukuboza muri uwo mwaka. Mu mwaka wakurikiyeho abavietminh barangajwe imbere na Ho Chi Minh na jenerari Vo Nguyen Giap niko guhita berekera iy ishyamba mu mashyamba atisukirwa mu majyaruguru ashyira uburengerazuba bwa Vietnam. Mu kwezi kwa kabiri tariki 4 mu 1947 mu Bufaransa habaho amatora nuko 36% yemeza intambara naho 42% bahitamo kujya mu mishyikirano nyamara ntibari bazi akaga kari kabategereje. Tariki 7 Ukwakira 1947 nibwo CEFEO (Corps Expéditionnaire Français en Extrême-Orient) ugenekeranije mu cyongereza ni French Far East Expeditionary Corps ingabo z bafaransa umutwe warwaniraga mu burasirazuba bwa kure babarirwa hagati y 30 000 na 50 000 bakoraga operation Lea ku ba Vietminh bagapfamo abasaga 9 000 ariko benshi bakarokoka ari nako bahunga intambara yarakomeje mu myaka ibiri ntaho ibintu bigaragarira ko bigera ku iherezo niko mu mwaka w 1949 kuya mbere Ukwakira Mao Zedong yatangazaga intsinzi mu Bushinwa niko guhita ayita People’s Republic of China. Mu mwaka wakurikiyeho wa 50 nibwo Ubushinwa na Leta zunze ubumwe z Abasoviet bemeraga ubutegetsi bwa Ho Chi Minh aha hari mu kwa Mbere ari nabwo Ubushinwa bwatangiraga kumuha intwaro ndetse n abajyanama mu bya gisirikare.

Mu kwezi kwa Kabiri abavietminh bagaba ibitero ku ngabo z abafaransa zari mu majyaruguru ya Vietnam hafi n umupaka w abashinwa, tariki 8 z ukwa gatanu abanyamerika niko kwemera inkunga mu buryo bw amafaranga n ubwa gisirikare ku bihugu bitatu byari bishyigikiye abafaransa aribyo Vetnam y amajyepfo, Laos na Cambodia. Mu kwa gatandatu abanyamerika baha ingabo z abafaransa inkunga ingana na miriyoni 15 z amadollars ari nako bayongeraga uko intambara yagendaga irushaho gukomera. Mu kwezi kwa cyenda generari Giap niko gukora counter offensive ku bafaransa mu majyaruguru yicamo anafata bugwate abasaga 6 000. Mu 1951 umwaka ugitangira nibwo abavietminh basaga 20 000 bagabaga ibitero ku ngabo z abafaransa mu majyaruguru ibi bikaba byaratumye mu Gushyingo n Ukuboza uwo mwaka abafaransa baguye n abakomerekeye muri iyi ntambara basaga 90 000. Uku gutsindwa kw abafaransa byateye abajenerari benshi babo guhamagazwa i Paris mu nkiko z iwabo za gisirikare bagasobanura impamvu batsindwaga n abo bitaga ko basuzuguritse batagira ubwenge ndetse badashobora no kuba bahangara igihugu cy igihangange nk Ubufaransa.

 

Mu mwaka w 1953 ingabo z abavietminh zagabye ibitero muri Laos mu kwezi kwa Mata aho bitabagoye cyane nuko mu kwezi kwakurikiyeho abafaransa bahindura umugaba w ingabo muri ako gace witwaga jenerari Navarre ari nabwo yatangazaga ko nta buryo bari gutsinda iyo ntambara bari barishoyemo kure kure cyane y iwabo muri miles zisaga 5 000 wabibarira mu birometero bikarenga 9 000. Mu birometero bike uvuye aho muri Koreya intambara yarimo irangira ari nabwo Koreya yagabanywagamo kabiri ku itariki 27 z ukwa Karindwi ari nako abafaransa bumvaga bazabigenza muri Vietnam kugira ngo babace intege. Nyamara abafaransa mu makosa ya gisirikare bari barishoyemo mu mateka y intambara zabo aha bari bagiye gukora ikosa, ikosa ryari rigiye kubapfukamisha mu maso y isi bakahakura ikimwaro kitari cyarigeze kibaho nyuma yo gutakaza colonies bari bafite mw isi nshya abanyaburayi bari barivumburiye.

Reka ducumbikire aha amateka ku rugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu, n ahubutaha tugaruka mu gice cya gatanu cy iki kiganiro. Murakoze mugire ibihe byiza

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