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Amateka

URUGAMBA RW I MEGIDDO RUZWI NK ARMAGEDDON

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14. kuko ari yo myuka y’abadayimoni, ikora ibitangaza igasanga abami bo mu isi yose, ngo ibahururize kujya mu ntambara yo ku munsi ukomeye w’Imana Ishoborabyose. 15. (Dore nzaza nk’umujura. Hahirwa uba maso akarinda imyenda ye, kugira ngo atagenda yambaye ubusa bakareba isoni z’ubwambure bwe.) 16. Ibateraniriza ahantu mu Ruheburayo hitwa Harimagedoni. 17. Marayika wa karindwi asuka urwabya rwe mu kirere. Ijwi rirenga rivugira mu rusengero kuri ya ntebe riti “Birarangiye!” Ibyahishuwe 16: 14-17 muri Bibiliya Yera.

intambara ikomeye, kuyumva biragoranye nkuko muri Bibiliya igitabo cyasomwe n miriyari nyinshi z abatuye isi kibivuga ku munsi w umujinya w Imana hazabaho intambara izwi kw izina rya “Harimagedoni” ijambo rikomoka mu giheburayo “Har Megiddo,” bisobanura ngo umusozi wa Megiddo wumvise uko wakumva nta bitangaje birimo nyamara mu mateka y intambara iri zina risobanura ikintu gikomeye nkuko tugiye kubibona hashize imyaka 3500.

Harimagedoni bisobanura muyandi magambo imperuka, irimbuka, uyu musozi wa Megiddo uherereye ku butaka buri mu kigobe cy abarabu ahegereye inyanja ya Mediterane mu kibaya cy i Yezereli. Aha Megiddo habereyeyo intambara nyinshi kugeza naho ari naho hakekwa cyangwa se abenshi bizerera ko hazabera intambara yanyuma izashyira akadomo ku guhangana hagati y icyiza n ikibi. Intambara zahabereye ni:

  • Intambara hagati ya Farawo wa Misiri/ Egiputa Thutmose III (wategetse1458-1425 BCE) na abanyakanani bari bigumuye kuri Misiri bayobowe n umwami w i Kadeshi ahagana mu mwaka w i 1479 BCE mbese mbere y ivuka rya Yezu mu yandi magambo mbere ya zeru.
  • Urundi rugamba rwari muri 609 BCE hagati y abanyegiputa n abayuda
  • Urundi ni urwari rushyamiranyije ubwami bw abami bw Ubwongereza n ubwami bw abami bw aba Ottoman mu 1918 aha ni mu gihe cyacu hashize imyaka 102

Uyu munsi rero turavuga ku rugamba rwashyamiranyije Farawo Thutmose III n abanyakanani bari bamwigumuyeho. Abari bahanganye bari abanyamisiri bayobowe n umwami wabo Farawo Thutmose III babarirwa mu ngabo hagati y ibihumbi 10 n ibihumbi makumyabiri (10 000- 20 000) mu gihe mubo bari bahanganye yari coalition y abanyakanani bari baturutse muri Kadesh, Megiddo, ndetse n i Mitanni bayobowe n umwami w i Kadeshi ndetse n igikomangoma cy i Megiddo bagizwe n ingabo hagati y ibihumbi cumi na cumi na bitanu (10 000- 15 000) aha ni muri Siriya.

Umwami wa Egiputa Farawo Thutmose III yarwanye intambara zisaga 14 mu myaka mirongo itanu irenga yamaze ku ngoma, impamvu urugamba rwa Megiddo ruzwi kw izina rya Harimagedoni rugarukwaho cyane mu mateka y intambara mw isi nuko ari rwo rwa mbere rwabonyweho n abatangabuhamya ndetse n abanditsi batari abasirikare barurwanye. Impamvu y intambara yatewe n ukwigumura kw abanyakanani kandi iyi mijyi yari imijyi yari ifatiye runini ubwami bw abami bw abanyegiputa kuko yari hagati mu nzira y ubucuruzi yahuzaga abanyamisiri ndetse n ubwami bugari bwabo bwageraga muri Mezopotamiya. Aha umwami wa Misiri Farawo THutmose III ntiyari kubyihanganira ahitamo gutangiza intambara kuba nyakanani ahagurutsa ingabo ibihumbi 20 asanganira abanyaanani aho bari bakambitse i Megiddo.

Nkuko bigarukwaho n umwanditsi Tjaneni wabaye muri iyo ntambara, Umwami w i Kadeshi nawe yahurije hamwe abatware b i Siriya, Aram na Canaan bajya mu ruhande rwe ngo bahangane n umwanzi wabo umwami wa Misiri amutegerereza ku mazi y i Taanach. Yumvaga ko Farawo Thutmose III azaturuka mu nzira y i Dothaim – Taanach mu kibaya cy i Kishon, Bakiva ku mupaka wabo wahitwa i Tjaru (mu kigereki havuga Sile) bahise bigarurira Gaza, nyuma yaho yerekeza i Yehem ahavuye akomeza asanga abanyakanani i Megiddo. Hanyuma yohereza abatasi ngo batate inzira yagombaga kunyuzamo ingabo ze kugira ngo abashe kugera i Megiddo. basanze hari inzira 3 gusa, mu majyaruguru hari uruhererekane rw imisozi ya Karumeri, inyuma yaho hakaba ari naho hari umujyi wa Megiddo, undi nawo wo mu majyaruguru ukaba Zefti n i Tel Yokneam mu gihe uw amajyepfo wacaga Taanach ugeza mu kibaya cya  Jezreel, uwanyuma wari uw ako kanya ariko ufite ibyago byinshi wacaga Aruna (ubu ni Wadi Ara) ariko ukaba inzira ifunganye kuburyo abasirikare be bari gukora umurongo muremure bikaba byabashyira mu byago byo gushirira rimwe mu gihe bituweho n umwanzi. Farawo amaze kwingingwa n abagaba b ingabo ze kuba bafata imwe mu nzira zoroshye ho kwishyira mu byago baca mu nzira ifunganye yahisemo kubyanga ahitamo inzira bangaga agira ati niba munsaba guca mu nzira yoroshye nta kabuza n abanzi niko batekereje none rero reka mbahinyuze mbatungure.

Niko byagenze mu mayeri y urugamba Farawo yafashe igisirikare cye akinyuza ahafunganye muri Aruna, umwami w i Kadeshi yari yasuzuguye aha Aruna atekereza ko abanyamisiri batahanyura nyamara za nzira 2 zindi azirindisha ingabo bikomeye. Ahangaha intambara yaroroshye ndetse iranihuta Farawo amaze kugera mu kibaya yahise ashinga amahema muri uwo mugoroba nuko mw ijoro apanga igisirikare cye. Bukeye mu gitondo umwami w i Kadeshi yagabye igitero ariko nyamara ntiyari yiteguye ndetse yanatunguwe kuba abanyamisiri bamugezeho. Mu mirongo y urugamba abanyamisiri bari igisirikare gihambaye kuri buri ruhande bafite amagare y intambara asaga 1000. Nkuko nababwiye intambara ntiyatinze, mu myaka y icyo gihe nirwo rugamba rwari rukomeye rwari rubayeho ako kanya abanyakanani baratsinzwe bahungira mu mujyi wa Megiddo. Farawo yagose umujyi mu gihe cy amezi arindwi kugeza aho umwami w i Kadeshi yatorotse nuko umujyi wishyira mu maboko ya Farawo.

Abanyamisiri aha bafashe amagare y intambara agera muri 924,amafarashi asaga 20 000, amatoni y ingano na seyiri,  imiheto yarigezweho icyo gihe 500 banafata imyenda y intambara isaga 200, ibimasa bisaga 1920, intama 22 500,  ndetse banafata indi mijyi yari mu kibaya cy i Yezereli byose bijya munsi y ubutegetsi bwa Egiputa. Ku ruhande rw abasirikare babanyamisiri hishwe abagera mu bihumbi bine hakomereka igihumbi mu gihe ku ruhande rw abanyakanani hishwe abagera ibihumbi umunani magana atatu hafatwa bunyago abasaga ibihumbi bitatu magana ane.

Naha nsoreje amateka y urugamba rw Megiddo urugamba rwafashe intera mu mateka y isi kugeza aho ubukana bwarwo bwatumye rufata n izina rya Harimagedoni, urugamba ruzwi muri Bibiliya nk  urugamba rwa nyuma mu mateka y isi, urugamba ruzashyira akadomo ku kibi.

Ni akagaruka amahoro y Imana abane namwe!

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"Until the lions have their own historians, the history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter." ~African proverb A Universe and history lover

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Amateka

Boeing B-17 FLYING FORTRESS

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Boeing B-17 mu kabyiniriro kayo “Flying Fortress” mu Kinyarwanda bisobanura inzu y umutamenwa iguruka. Impamvu nuko yari bombardier ariko ikirenzeho ikaba yarabashaga kwirindira umutekano aho yari ifite imbunda zigera muri 13 za 12.7 mm machine guns zivuye kuri 5 ubwo yatangiraga gukorwa. Ikindi nuko iyi yarasiraga mu ntera yo hejuru kure cyane ndetse inanyaruka ku muvuduko wari ntagereranywa ikindi kandi inakomeye kuko yabashaga gusubira ku bibuga by indege yahagurukiyeho yarashweho bikomeye cyane n umwanzi abayigize batahungabanyijwe cyane n amasau yabo bahanganye.

Boeing B 17 yagize ibikorwa bikomeye uhereye kuri version yayo ya mbere kugeza kuya nyuma. Gusa iyi ni indege yamamaye mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi (WW II) ubwo yakoreshwaga iyogoza amato, indege ndetse n inganda z abanzi bari bahanganye n ibihugu byishize hamwe ngo birwanye abanazi n abayapani. Mu matoni y amabombe yarashwe ndetse yasutswe n indege z abanyamerika mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi ku butaka bw abanazi n ubwo bagenzuraga muri toni miriyoni 1.5 zasutswe n indege, B 17 niyo yasutse ibisasu byinshi aho ibarirwa mu matoni bihumbi 640 by amabombe yituye ku butaka bw abanazi mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi. Iyi ndege yakozwe n abanyamerika ahagana mu mwaka w I 1935 ariko itangira kuguruka 1938 nuko ihagarikwa mu gukoreshwa bwanyuma mu mwaka w i 1968 mu gisirikare cya Brazil kirwanira mu kirere.

Mu 1934 tariki 8 z ukwa munani United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) yashyize kw isoko ipiganwa ku kubaka indege z intambara zagombaga kuba zifite engines/ moteri nyinshi zagombaga gusimbura izitwaga Martin B-10. Izi  bazishakaga ngo zijye gutanga umusaada ku barwanira mu kirere mu birwa bya Hawaii, Panama ndetse na Alaska. Ibisabwa byari ukuba yatwara imizigo y amabombe iremereye cyane ku butumburuke bwa metero 3 000 mu gihe cy amasaha 10 igendera ku muvuduko wa 200 mph cyangwa se 320km/h.Ikindi USAAC yifuzaga nubwo bitari mu bisabwa byari ukuba iyi ndege yagenda ibirometero 3 200 ku muvuduko w ibirometero 400 ku isaha (400 km/h). Aha Boeing yagiye mu ipiganwa ihanganye na Douglas yari yazanye type yayo ya Douglas DB-1 ndetse na Martin Model 146 ku kibuga cy indege cya Wilbur Wright muri Dayton, Ohio muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Boeing B 17 Model 299 yabo yari yakozwe n abenjenyeri bayobowe na E. Gifford  Emery na Edward Curtis Wells ifite imbunda 5 za 30 caliber (7.62mm) machine guns ishobora kwikorera toni 2.2 by ibisasu iyi ndege yari itwawe na moteri 4 za Pratt & Whitney R-1690 buri imwe ikora 750hp (600 Kw) ku butumburuke bwa metero 2 100.

Tariki 27 Nyakanga 1935 umunyamakuru Richard Williams w ikinyamakuru Seattle Times nyuma yo kubona izo mbunda B 17 Model 299 niwe wavuze ati iyi ni 15 ton flying fortress niko guhimbwa “Flying Fortress”. Bwa mbere yagurutse tariki 28 Nyakanga 1935 itwawe n umukuru w aba pilote bakora amatests muri Boeing witwaga Leslie Tower. Tariki 20 Kanama 1935 nibwo iyi prototype ya B 17 yahagurutse iva ku kibuga cy indege cya Seattle yerekeza ku cya Wright Field mu masaha 9 n iminota 3 aha ni mu ntera y ibirometero 3 800 aho yagenderaga ku muvuduko wa 406 km/h aho yasumbaga umuvuduko wari watswe mu marushanwa y isoko isumba kure mu bubasha iza DB-1 ndetse na Model 146. Gusa tariki 30 Ukwakira 1935 nibwo Major Ployer Peter Hill wo muri USAAC ndetse na Les Tower bagurutsaga Model 299 bwa kabiri muri test yayo ya kabiri gusa bakibagirwa gukuramo icyitwa “gust locks” ibi byatumye indege ibura control iri mu kirere niko gukora impanuka ibica bombi. Iyi mpanuka niyo yatumye Boeing idatsindira iri soko niko kuriha Douglas kuri 58 200$ yicyo gihe ubu ahwanye na miriyoni 1.09 $ y ubu. Mu gihe Boeing yagombaga kubona $99 620 bihwanye na miriyoni 1.86 y amadollars yubu gusa ibi ntibyayibujije kuza kugurwa nyuma ubwo Ubwongereza na Amerika byinjiraga mu ntambara ya kabiri yose. Ahabanza zagiye zigira ibibazo byinshi kugeza zigeze aho ziba agatangaza niko kuyogoza burayi bwari bwarigaruriwe n abanazi no gusuka amatoni y ibisasu mu mbere mu Budage bwa Hitler ubundi arashoberwa karahava zisenya bidasubirwaho inganda n imijyi bye. Izi zarekeye gukorwa mu mwaka 1945 nyuma yuko bamaze gukora izigera mu 12 731 zikaba zarakorerwaga muri Boeing Plant 2 yabaga Seattle, Washington (BO) ndetse na California. Buri imwe yabaga yagurwa amafaranga angana na $ 238,329 (1945) ariyo miriyoni 2.7$ mu yo mu 2018.

Ngibi bimwe mu biranga B 17 mu bipimo byayo:

  • Crew (10): Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer/top turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
  • Uburebure: 66 m
  • Uburebure bw ibaba: 62 m
  • Uburebure: 82 m
  • Ubuso bw ibaba: 92 m2
  • Ibiro byayo idahetse: 16,391 kg
  • Ibiro byayo ihetse: 24,500 kg
  • Ibiro byinshi byanyuma yahagurukana: 29,700 kg
  • Imbaraga za moteri: 4 × Wright R-1820-97 “Cyclone” turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) kuri buri imwe
  • Ibipanga bya moteri: 3-bladed Hamilton-Standard constant-speed propeller

  • IMIKORERE
  • Maximum speed:462 km/h, 249 kn
  • Cruise speed: 293 km/h, 158 kn
  • Range: 3,219 km hamwe na 2,700 kg byaza bombload
  • Service ceiling: 10,850 m
  • Rate of climb:6 m/s
  • Wing loading:7 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 150 W/kg

Armament

  • Imbunda:13 × .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns
  • Bombs:
    • Short range missions (<400 mi): 3,600 kg
    • Long range missions (≈800 mi): 2,000 kg
    • Overload: 7,800 kg

 

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Amateka

URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA MBERE)

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Mortiers, mitrailleuses, urufaya rw amabombe byatwituragaho ubutitsa uko bukeye nuko bwije, yari mw ijoro ariko twabashaga kubona aba vietm Minh bamanuka imisozi ndetse abashinzwe kurashisha ibibunda biremereye bamisha amasasu yabo ku birindiro by abafaransa bari bakambitse aha muri Dien Bien Phu mu ntera ya km 16 z uburebure ndetse n umunani (8) z ubugari aha hari hahuriye abasirikare ibihumbi 94 (94 000) aho abavietmihn bari ibihumbi 80 (80 000) naho abafaransa bari ibihumbi 14 (14 000). Uru rwari urugamba rukomeye rwari rubayeho nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi. Aha amategeko y intambara abavietminh ntibayumvaga nyuma y intsinzi iruhanyije bari bagize niko gufata bunyago abasirikare ibihumbi 12 (12 000) b abafaransa bakabica babatoteje harokotse mbarwa hataha abasaga gato ibihumbi 3 (3 000) gusa buzuye intimba, ubwoba n ikimwaro bari bakuye muri Vietnam aha hari mu 1954. Aha abafaransa bishwe barashwe bari basaga gato ibihumbi 8 (8 000) nabwo babakuyemo inzara n amenyo nyuma yo gufungirwa mu mazi mu gihe kitari gito.

Intambara nka kimwe mu bikorwa byaranzwe ndetse bwamenyerewe mu mibereho y ikiremwamuntu zagiye zihindura imiterere y ubutegetsi ndetse n imibereho y abantu mu gace kamwe cyangwa akandi mw isi ndetse no mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Dien Bien Phu aha ni hamwe mu hapfukamishije abafaransa mu mateka y intambara mu bihe bya vuba ndetse nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi kuko aha naho bapfukamishijwe bikomeye n igisirikare cy abanazi ba Hitler Wehrmacht kigizwe na Heer yo ku butaka, Kriegsmarine bo mu mazi ndetse na Luftwaffe yarwaniraga mu kirere. Intambara yo muri Vietnam yiswe the First Indochina war aho yamaze imyaka isaga 8 yashyizweho akadomo n intsinzi y abarwanyi b abavietmihn bamaze guha isomo rya gisirikare abafaransa bari abakoroni bagataha bimyiza imoso ari bo barwanye intambara ndetse n abanyamerika babateraga inkunga y amafaranga aho batanze isaga miriyoni 300 z amadollars. Ibi byose byigisha ko abagenerari b ibihugu bikomeye mu bya gisirikare bakunda gusuzugura abo bahanganye nabo bibwira ko nta bushobozi mu gukora intambara bafite cyangwa se bashoboye ibi bikaganisha ku kurimburira rimwe ingabo zabo bayoboye no guhindura igice cyaho intsinzi ya gisirikare igana. Mbere yuko tuvuga ku mutwe w inkuru yacu y uyu munsi, reka turebere hamwe inkomoko ndetse n intandaro by uru rugamba duhereye atari kure cyane mu mizi kugira ngo tugire ishusho y imvano y iyi ntambara.

Ibi byose byatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19 ubwo ibihugu byo mu Burayi byiyita “Old Continent” byajyaga mu masiganwa yo kwigwizaho ibihugu byo gukoroniza ngo babone aho bakura ibikoresho nkenerwa basubiza mu bihugu byabo ngo bahaze inganda zabo zari zicyaduka, nibwo abafaransa nabo batangiraga ukwisuka muri Indochine agace kari muri Aziya ahagana muri 1859 ndetse mu 1885 bari baramaze kwigarurira ibice binini byaho. Indochina y abafaransa yashinzwe ku itariki 17 Ukwakira 1887 aho bahurizaga hamwe Vietnam (yarigizwe na Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina), ubwami bwa Cambodia, na Laos  iyi yongereweho nyuma y intambara Franco-Siamese War mu mwaka w i 1893 bakabigira colonies zabo. Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rwaje nk iherezo ry ubukoroni bw abafaransa muri Indochina, ariko ntibahavuye mu mahoro byasabye kunyura mu ntambara intambara itaroroshye cyangwa ngo yihute kuko yararambye imara imyaka umunani (8) yose ishyamiranyije abavietminh ndetse n abafaransa bari banafite mu ngabo zabo abalaos, abanyamaroc, abanyarijeriya, abanyacambodia ndetse n abatais. Nyamara intambara iza nk igisubizo cya nyuma cya nyuma kuko izindi nzira z ibiganiro mbese zose zose zananiwe impande ebyiri zishyamiranye zitumvikana cyangwa zitabyumva kimwe.

Nshuti reka igice cya mbere tugihinire aha, ntuzacikwe n ibindi bice aho tuzavuga byimbitse kuri uru rugamba ndetse n intandaro zayo tutibagiwe n ingaruka zayiturutseho.
Murakoze murakarama!!!!

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Amateka

IMBUNDA YA M 16

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M 16 Rifle ni imwe mu ntwaro cyane cyane imbunda yazamuye ibendera rya Amerika mu mateka y isi. Iyi mbunda ni 5.56mm, M 16 aho yakomotse kuri ArmaLite AR-15 yo muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, iya mbere yiyi yari ifite magazine ijyamo amasasu 20 nyuma yaho mu 1969 M 16 A1 yahawe bolt-assist igizwe na chrome ndetse inahabwa magazine y amasasu 30 kandi ikaba automatic. Iyi mbunda yahimbwe n uwitwa Eugene Stoner afatanyije na L. James Sullivan mu 1959 mu gihugu cy igihangange cya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bikozwe n inganda nyinshi harimo nka za:

  • Colt’s Manufacturing Company
  • Daewoo Precision Industries
  • FN Herstal
  • Bushmaster
  • H&R Firearms
  • General Motors Hydramatic Division
  • Elisco ndetse na,
  • U.S. Ordnance

Zatangiye gukorwa mu 1963 kugeza magingo aya, muri 2003 hamaze gukorwa izisaga miriyoni 8. Iyi ni imbunda wakoresha nkuko Avtomat Kalashnikov (AK 47) yanyanyagiye hose niyi nayo wayikoresha wigishwa bike ubundi ibisigaye aba ari nko gukina umukino wa dame unyereza amapiyo ku yandi. Iyi yakoreshejwe cyangwa yarwanye mu ntambara zose abanyamerika bishoyemo nk intambara yo muri Vietnam, Somali civil war, Salvadoran Civil war, ahandi ni muri Korea, Rhodesian Bush war, First Congo war, Iraq war, Gulf ndetse n izindi nyinshi.

Aha rero tugana ku musozo w iyi nkuru reka turebe ibigize iyi ntwaro y agatangaza y abanyamerika, imbunda wakwigondera ku mafaranga atari munsi ya 500 y amadollars y amanyamerika.

Specifications (M16)
Ibiro ipima 2.89 kg (unloaded)
3.40 kg (loaded)
Uburebure 1,003 mm
Uburebure bwa Barrel 508 mm

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO (M193)
Caliber 5.56 mm
Action cyangwa uko ikora Gas-operated cyangwa rotating bolt
Umuvuduko wo kurasa 700–950 rounds/min cyclic sustained
45–60 rounds/min semi-automatic
Umuvuduko isasu risoohokana 960 m/s
Effective firing range 550 m point target
800 m Area target
Maximum firing range 3,600 m
Feed system STANAG magazine
20-round detachable box magazine:
96 g empty / 335 g full

30-round detachable box magazine:
117 g empty / 480 g full

Beta C-Mag 100-round double-lobed drum:
1,000 g empty / 2,180 g full

Murakoze mugire ibihe byiza!

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Amateka

ANABASIS THE TEN THOUSANDS MARCH IGICE CYA GATANU

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Nkuko twabibonye mu gice kibanziriza iki aricyo cya kane, aba bacancuro bari batangiye kugarura icyizere kuko bari bari gusatira umujyi wabo kuko yari colony y abagereki. Niba utarasomye ibice byayibanjirije, wakanda kuri iyi link ukaba wabasha gusobanukirwa naho ibintu byahereye https://yegob.rw/anabasis-the-ten-thousands-march-igice-cya-kane/   Iki ni igice cyacyo cya  gatanu igice cya nyuma mu ruhererekane rw ibiganiro byerekeye urugendo n ubuhangange bw abagereki b abacancurobatahaga bava mu gihugu cy umwanzi.

Dukomeje, aari muri Mutarama muri 400 mbere ya Yezu, mu nzira y ibyago n umuruho inzira yarimaze amezi agera muri atanu (5) aho bari basigaye ari ibihumbi umunani (8 000) nibwo bageze ahitwa Deveboynu muri Tepe muri miles 30 mu majyepfo ya Trabzon cyangwa Trapezus mu mpinga z umusozi wa Theches bahagaze ahirengeye nibwo abambere babonye inyanja yirabura bitegeye ku butumburuke bwo hejuru nuko basabwa n ibyishimo ndetse n amarira ababunga mu maso niko gusakuza cyane biyamira cyane bati “Thalassa! Thalassa” bivuga mu cyongereza “The Sea! The Sea!” wagenekereza mu Kinyarwanda bikavuga ngo “Inyanja! Inyanja!”, Trapezus ntiyari umujyi nk indi, yari umwe muri colony z abagereki kandi ikindi yari ifitanye umubano mwiza n Ubugereki. Nk ingabo zari zigaruye morale bajya kuva aha i Trapezus bagiranye amasezerano n abatware baho ndetse baharwana intambara yanyuma n abacolchians b abaperesi niko kuhegukana intsinzi idasubirwaho.

Mu gihe bari bakiri i Trapezus abacancuro b abagereki bohereje generari wabo Cheirisophus kuri Admiral Anaxibius w umunyasparte wari i Byzantium kugira ngo bahabwe amato yo kubasubiza iwabo mu Bugereki. Igihe Generari Cheirisophus yabasangaga Sinope yabazaniye inkuru idasobanutse kuko nta gisubizo kizima yari yahawe na Admiral Anaxibius gusa yari yamubwiye ko bazishyura bakiva muri Euxine intara Trapezus yabarizwagamo. Mu rugendo rwabo aba barakomeje berekeza mu burengerazuba bake batwawe n amato abandi bakomeza n amaguru kugera binjiye Bythinia nyuma y udutero shuma tw abaturage baho bashyigikiwe na Satrap Pharnabazus wa Hellespontine Phrygia, ndetse n ingabo ze zirwanira ku mafarashi zabagabyeho ibitero bikanemezwa ko zabishemo abasaga 500. Nabwo nibwo Anaxibius yagambanye na Satrap Pharnabazus kugira ngo akure abagereki aberekeze muri Byzantium ndetse yemera kuzamwishyura, ibi byateje imirwano yatumye Admiral ahungira mu mujyi wa Acropolis. Nyuma yaho abarwanyi baratashye iyi campaign ituma General Xenophon izina rye ryamamara mu mateka nk umwe mu bagenerari bahambaye babayeho kandi yari umwanditsi waruherekeje nkuzabara inkuru y ubuhangange bw abagereki.

Ibi bikorwa bihambaye byakozwe n izi ngabo byatumye abagiriki babona ko igisirikare cy ubuperesi babonaga banatinyaga ko kitari gikomeye kandi ko bari biteguye bitewe n ubuhanga mu ntambara bari bashoboye kuba bakwigarurira isi yose yariho icyo gihe bakayipfukamisha munsi y ibendera ry Ubugiriki, nibwo mu majyaruguru y Ubugereki hadukaga umubyeyi n umwana we bagatangiza intambara yashyize akadomo ku buhangange bw abaperesi buyobowe imbere na Philippe II na Alexander the great].

Murakoze n ah ubutaha!
Amahoro y Imana abane namwe!!!

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MOTERI YA V8

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V8 ni moteri ifite ibyumba byo gutwikiramo (combustion chambers) 8 ikaba kuri iyo mpamvu bituma igira cylinder pistons 8 izi zose zikaba zifashe cyangwa se zishamikiye kuri Crankshaft (inkoni y icyuma pistons ziba zifasheho ikaba ibarizwa hasi ya za piston) ndetse nkuko izina ribivuga, iyi moteri ahari izo pistons hakaba hakozwe mu ishusho ya V hamwe mu ruhande rw ibumoso hari pistons 4 no murundi rw Iburyo hari izindi 4, aho izi zitandukanira kuri angle ya 60o cyangwa iya 90o. Iya mbere yakozwe hari mu 1904 ikozwe na compagnie y abafaransa yitwaga Antoinette bayikoreye indege, ahagana muri 1914-1935 nibwo Cadillac yarifite moteri ya L-Head yakorwaga ku bwinshi bikayigira ikinyabiziga cyangwa se imodoka ya mbere yakoreshwaga na moteri ya V8. Nyamara nubwo yakozwe mu gihe kingana uko iyi moteri yamamaye mu gukoreshwa mu ma modoka ahagana mu 1932 ahanini bishingiye mu gutangira gukorwa kw imodoka za Ford zizana n ubwoko bwa moteri ya Ford Flathead V8.

Moteri ya V8 ya mbere nkuko nababwiye yari Antoinette engine ikaba yarubatswe cyangwa se yarakozwe na Leon Levavasseur ikubakirwa mu Bufaransa ahagana mu 1904 yubakiwe amato yakoraga amarushanwa yo gusiganwa ndetse n indege. Iyi moteri mu 1905 yarifite 50 HorsePower bingana na Kilowatt 37 ipima ibiro (kg) 86 kugira ngo iyi haboneke iyisumbuyeho  byafashe imyaka 25 yose muri 1904 ndetse izindi nganda nka Renault na Buchet n ubundi ari iz amato asiganwa ndetse n indege. Mu ntambara ya mbere y isi WWI aha kimwe cya kabiri cy indege z intambara z abishyize hamwe (The Allied) zagurutswaga na moteri ya Hispano-Suiza 8 SOHC yakorewe mu gihugu cy Ubusuwisi.

V8 zagiye zihindurirwa ingano kugira ngo zibe zagabanya uburemere bwazo bwite ndetse n umwanya zatwaraga mu binyabiziga, aha twavuga ko zashoboraga kuva kuri 6.0L ikagera kuri 3.5L nkaho inini yabayeho yari 8.2L ikoreshwa muri 1971-1978 itwara mu modoka ya Cadillac Eldorado. Izi moteri zikunda gukoreshwa mu bihugu nka Australia, Czech Republic, Ubushinwa, Ubufaransa, Ubudage, Ubutariyani, Ubuyapani, Korea, Sweden, Uburusiya, Ubwongereza ndetse na Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Mu mwaka wa 2011, GM nibwo yariyujuje moteri yayo ya miriyoni ya Chevrolet y umubyimba muto ibi bikaba byarayigize moteri ya V8 ya mbere yakozwe cyane ikananyanyagizwa mw isi.

Nko mu masiganwa moteri zimwe na zimwe za V8 zishobora kugira Horsepower ikabakaba 10 000 hp bingana na kilowatt 7 000 hamwe na torque (Ukwikaraga kwayo) ingana na 10 000 N.m. Ushaka rero kwigondera iyi moteri, wahera ku madollars 7 000 y abanyamerika ariko ibiciro bikaba byanagera kw ari hejuru yayo bitewe n ugukomera kwayo.

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