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Inkomoko y’umunsi w’abapapa ( Father’s Day) wizihijwe none tariki ya 21 Kamena 2020

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Umunsi w’ahariwe ababyeyi b’abagabo (abapapa) cyangwa se Father’s Day wijihijwe ku isi yose none tariki ya 21 Kamena 2020. Hashize imyaka 110 uyu munsi wizihizwa ku isi yose.

Father’s Day yabonye inkomoko yayo bivuye ku mwana w’umukobwa witwa Sonora Smart Dodd ubwo yari yicaye mu rusengero nyuma akaza kumva ko habaho umunsi w’ababyeyi b’abamama (Mother’s Day) maze akifuza ko hanabaho umunsi wihariye w’abapapa kuko yakundaga Papa we cyane ndetse akifuza kuzamuha impano kuri uwo munsi. Nyuma Mama wa Sonora Smart yaje kwitaba Imana maze Papa we afata inshingano zo kumurera we n’abavandimwe be batanu.

Mu mwaka wakurikiyeho, Sonora Dodd yashatse ko umunsi wa Papa we wakwizihizwa ku itariki y’amavuko ya Papa we ubwo hari tariki 05 Kamena 1910 ndetse yifuza ko na Papa we yabone ikiruhuko kuri uwo munsi kugirango abashe kwishimana nabo. Inkuru yabaye kimomo maze umuyobozi w’Intara Sonora Dodd yari atuyemo arabimenya gusa yifuzako uwo munsi wigizwa inyuma ho ibyumweru bibiri maze bwa mbere umunsi w’aba papa wizihizwa tariki ya 19 Kamena 1910.

Kuva icyo gihe kugeza ubu umunsi w’abapapa urizihizwa ku isi hose. Hagenwe ko umunsi w’aba papa wizihizwa ku cyumweru cya gatatu cy’ukwezi kwa Kamena .

Bimwe mu bikunze kuranga uyu munsi ni amagambo meza abana babwira ba papa babo, impano zitandukanye ndetse n’urukundo abana ndetse n’abandi bose bagize umuryango bagaragariza ababyeyi b’abagabo. Uyu mwaka umunsi w’abapapa wizihijwe none tariki ya 21 Kamena 2020.

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Amateka

URUGANDA RWA VOLKSWAGEN

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Uruganda rwa Volkswagen ni uruganda rukomoka mu Budage rwashinzwe mu mwaka 1937 i Berlin bikozwe na German Labour Front yari ifite icyicaro muri Wolfsburg. Volkswagen mu cyongereza bisobanura “people’s car” bisobanura “imodoka ya rubanda”. Ibi byaje ubwo mu Budage bwo muri za 1930 abantu bangana n’ 1 kuri 50 b abadage ariwe wabashaga gutunga imodoka abandi basigaye bashobora kuba bakwigurira amapikipiki. Nyuma yuko habayeho gahunda za private projects mu byerekeye ibinyabiziga, ahagana mu 1934 nibwo Adolph Hitler wari uyoboye Ubudage yabyinjiragamo niko gutegeka ko hakubakwa imodoka z abantu ku giti cyabo zitwara abantu babiri imbere ndetse n abana 3 inyuma inyarukira ku muvuduko w ibirometero 100 ku isaha kugira ngo ashimangire gahunda ye yo gutunga ibinyabiziga ku rwego buri muturage aba afite iye modoka. Volkswagen niyo founding ikanaba umunyamuryango wa Volkswagen Group, Corporation iri ku rwego mpuzamahanga igenzura inganda zindi zikora amoko atandukanye y imodoka zirimo Audi, SEAT, Porsche, Lamborghini, Bentley, Bugatti, Scania, MAN, na Škoda.

Nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi, uru ruganda rwari rwarasenyutse nk izindi zose zo mu Budage rwaje kwisanga ruri mu marembera aho rwabarizwaga mu gice cyari cyarahawe abongereza mucyitwaga Western Germany cyangwa se Ubudage bw Uburengerazuba. Muri iki gihe kandi bagabanyirijwe ingano y imodoka bakoraga kuburyo zageze ku gihumbi gusa bingana na 10% y izo bakoraga 1936 nabwo indi mpamvu ikaba yari ukubera ko batashoboraga kubona bimwe mu bice bigize imodoka kuko batabyikoreraga bikaba byaraturukaga muri Eastern Germany yari yarafashwe n abasoviyeti. Ford ndetse n abandi banyenganda mu by ibinyabiziga banze gushora amafaranga ndetse no kuba bagura Volkswagen yari iyobowe na Major Ivan Hirst w umwongereza. Heinrich Nordhoff wari assistant wa Hirst niwe wasigiwe uru ruganda ubwo Major Ivan Hirst yaruvagamo nuko nibwo Volkswagen yiyubatse munsi y ubuyobozi bwa Heinrich Nordhoff. Imodoka za VW zabanje kugurishwa muri Amerika na Canada muri za 1950s nabwo zikaza ari nke ariko cyane cyane ama sedans ariyo akunzwe kuko mu 1973 bari bamaze gukora imodoka miriyoni 16.

Mu mwaka wa 2018 habayeho gusohora ingano y imodoka igera muri miriyoni 10.8 bikaba ari ko byari byagenze mu mwaka wawubanjirije. Volkswagen igira amashami menshi cyane mw isi ari ayo gukora imodoka cyangwa kuziteranya. Inganda zabo tuzisanga nko muri Mexico, leta zunze ubumwe z Amerika, Slovakia, China, India, Russia, Malaysia, Brazil, Argentina, Portugal,

Spain, Poland, the Czech Republic, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Rwanda, Kenya and South Africa. Kuva uru ruganda rwashingwa, ngaya amoko y imodoka agera muri za mirongo itanu (50+) rwakoze. Hari Amarok, Arteon, Beetle, Bora, Brasilia, Caddy, California, Caaravelle, Citi Golf, Clasico, Corrado, Derby, Eos, Fox, Gol, Golf, Iltis, Jetta, Karmann Ghia, Lavida, Lupo, Magotan, Multivan, Parati, Passat, Passat (North America), Passat CC, Passat Variant, Phaeton, Polo, Polo Vivo Dune, Quantum, Rabbit, Routan, SP2, Sagitar, Saveiro, Scirocco, Sharan, Suran, T-Cross, T-Roc, Teramont, Tiguan, Tuareg, Touran, Transporter, Up, Variant VII, Vento ndetse na Voyage.

MODERI ZA VW ZACURUJWE CYANE MU 2019
Rank MODERI IZAKOZWE
1 Tiguan 910,126
2 Polo/Virtus/Vento/Ameo 706,052
3 Golf 679,351
4 Jetta/Sagitar 610,327
5 Passat/Magotan 543,706
6 Lavida 514,698
7 Bora 345,077
8 T-Roc 328,069
9 T-Cross 274,071
10 Santana 244,132

 

Uru ruganda mu mwaka wa 2018 mu kwezi kwa Kamena nibwo rwatangiye imirimo yarwo yo guteranya imodoka (assembling cars) mu Rwanda, aho bateranyiriza ibice by imodoka bitandukanye bivuye hanze y u Rwanda nko muri Afrika y epfo, muri leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika ndetse no muri Argentina byose byagezwa mu Rwanda bikaba byatwara iminsi 2 kugira ngo imodoka ibe irangije guteranwa. Ishami rya Volkswagen mu Rwanda ryatangaje ko mu myaka ya mbere ruzajya rukora imodoka 1 000 mu mwaka kugira ngo rube rwahaza isoko rihari. Uru ruganda kandi ishami ry u Rwanda rukora sub-brands za VW nka Polo, Passat, Tiguan, Teramont ndetse na Amarok ndetse no mu mwaka ushize wa 2019 mu kwezi k Ukwakira 29 nibwo mu Rwanda bamuritse electric Golf car (e-Golf) aho hari ubufatanye hagati ya Volkswagen ndetse na Siemens.

VW Polo

VW Passat

VW Tiguan

VW Teramont

VW Amarok

Murakoze reka duhinire aha n ah ubutaha
Mugire amahoro n umugisha by Imana!!!

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URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA KABIRI)

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Nkuko twari twabigarutseho mu gice cya mbere cy inkuru yacu ku rugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu, uyu munsi turakomerezaho tureba ese ni iyihe yabaye intandaro y ukuneshwa n ikimwaro abafaransa bakuye muri Vietnam? Niba utarasomye igice cya mbere kanda iyi link abe ariho uhera kugira ngo ubyumve neza https://yegob.rw/urugamba-rwa-dien-bien-phu-igice-cya-mbere/

Nkuko mu bindi bihugu byari byarakoronijwe abantu babyo bajyanywe n abakoroni mu ntambara niko kubona ko nabo bagamburuzwa yewe ndetse bagatabwa muri yombi niko kugaruka bashaka ubwigenge ariko hamwe na hamwe babaga barabijeje ubwigenge nibaramuka babahaye abarwanyi. Abaturage ba Vietnam nyuma yuko abayapani babigaruriye mu gihe cy intambara ya kabiri y isi yose nubwo yariho irangira ninabwo abayapani bamanikaga amaboko bamaze kubaturaho ibisasu kirimbuzi bya bombe atomique muri Hiroshima na Nagasaki mu 1945 bavuye muri Indochina bayisigira aba viet minh banabohoza Hanoi niko guhita bavuga ko Vietnam yigenze, Aba Việt Minh yari national independence coalition yashingiwe ahitwa Pác Bó ishinzwe na Hồ Chí Minh tariki 19 Gicurasi, 1941. Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội bari barashingiwe muri Nanjing, mu Bushinwa, hagati y ukwa munani 1935 no mu ntangiriro ya za 1936 ubwo amashyaka Vietnamese nationalist yishyiraga hamwe ngo arwanye ba gashakabuhake babaga barayogoje igihugu cyabo. Nyamara aba barazimye ntihagira icyo bakora ku bibazo byabo , yongeye kuzanirwa imbaraga n ishyaka ry abakomunisti yitwaga dochinese Communist Party (ICP) na Hồ Chí Minh mu 1941. Abaviệt Minh nibo bonyine basigaye barigize abarwanya abakoroni b abafaransa ndetse no kwigarurira Indochina bayambura abayapani.

Abaviet Mihn (Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi) aho mu cyongereza bishaka kuvuga League for the Independence of Vietnam bayobowe na Ho Chi Minh mu rwego rwa politiki naho mu rwego rwa gisirikare bayobowe na generari Vo Nguyen Giap bacengeye muri Vietnam mu mpera za 1943 n abaviet minh be niko guhangana n abayapani yigumura kuri occupation yabo, aha hari mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi niko guhita atangira intambara ya guerrilla. Ubwo bari muri iyo ntambara nibwo bigaruriraga ibice binini by amajyaruguru ya Vietnam nyuma nabwo babohoza Hanoi niko guhita bashing leta yigenga bayita Independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Ibi ntibyarangiriye aho, abafaransa ntibari biteguye gutankaza inyungu bari bafite mu bice bya Indochina niko guhita bagaruka nk abakoroni birengagiza ndetse ntibakwemera ubutegetsi bushya bwari bugiyeho. Bidatinze abavietminh nabo ntibari biteguye gusubira munsi y ibendera ry abafaransa niko kurahira ko kugeza ku wanyuma wabo bazarwana mpaka umufaransa wanyuma avuye muri Vietnam cyangwa abanyavietnam bose bagashirira ku nkota bose bagapfa. .

Nibwo intambara yubuye hagati y abaviet mihn bayobowe na Ho Chi Min ndetse na generari Vo Nguyen Giap ndetse n abafaransa bayobowe n abagenerari benshi kuko basimburanywe muri Vietnam ari nako bashyikirizwa inkiko za gisirikare basobanura impamvu n icyabateye gutsindwa intambara. Iyi ntambara yiswe the first Indochina war, yatangiye tariki 19 Ukuboza 1946 irangira 1 Kanama 1954 irangirana intsinzi y abavietminh. Mbere yuko twinjira mu ntambara reka hagire amagambo amwe mumenya kuko tuzajya tuyabona kenshi ndetse tunayababwira icyo ashaka kuvuga.mu magambo yoroheje, harimo nka Garrison, Division, Battalion, Legionnaire, nandi nandi menshi.

 

Garrison bisobanura itsinda ry abasirikare baba bakambitse mu mutamenwa cyangwa mu mujyi kugira ngo bawurinde bikomeye ngo umwanzi atinjiramo. Infantry yo n i igisirikare kirwanira ku butaka ndetse banagendesha amaguru. Corps ni igice cy ingabo nyinshi aho iba igizwe na Divisions ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi cyane aho iba igizwe hagati y abasirikare 50 000 n 100 000 ikayoborwa n Lieutenant Generari. Division mu gisirikare ni unit ya gisirikare iba igizwe n abasirikare 10 000- 25 000, aha ahenshi iba igizwe na Regiments nyinshi cyangwa Brigades nyinshi ikayoborwa na General Officer Commanding aho i rank rye aba ari Major General. Brigade ni igice cya Division cyangwa se Subdivision y igisirikare aho iba igizwe n umubare muto wa infantry Battalions, regiments, squadrons ndetse nizindi units bigize Division, iyi ikaba iyoborwa na Brigadier General cyangwa se Senior Colonel igizwe n abasirikare basaga gato hagati y 3000- 5 000. Legionnaire ni umutwe w ingabo z abafaransa washinzwe mu 1831, aba aba ni infantry iba yarahawe imyitozo ihambaye ikaba ikorera hanze y igihugu cy ubufaransa ndetse n abanyamahanga bashobora kwinjizwamo.

Reka tube ducumbikiye aha tuzakomeza icyumweru gitaha!
Mugire amahoro!!!

 

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Boeing B-17 FLYING FORTRESS

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Boeing B-17 mu kabyiniriro kayo “Flying Fortress” mu Kinyarwanda bisobanura inzu y umutamenwa iguruka. Impamvu nuko yari bombardier ariko ikirenzeho ikaba yarabashaga kwirindira umutekano aho yari ifite imbunda zigera muri 13 za 12.7 mm machine guns zivuye kuri 5 ubwo yatangiraga gukorwa. Ikindi nuko iyi yarasiraga mu ntera yo hejuru kure cyane ndetse inanyaruka ku muvuduko wari ntagereranywa ikindi kandi inakomeye kuko yabashaga gusubira ku bibuga by indege yahagurukiyeho yarashweho bikomeye cyane n umwanzi abayigize batahungabanyijwe cyane n amasau yabo bahanganye.

Boeing B 17 yagize ibikorwa bikomeye uhereye kuri version yayo ya mbere kugeza kuya nyuma. Gusa iyi ni indege yamamaye mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi (WW II) ubwo yakoreshwaga iyogoza amato, indege ndetse n inganda z abanzi bari bahanganye n ibihugu byishize hamwe ngo birwanye abanazi n abayapani. Mu matoni y amabombe yarashwe ndetse yasutswe n indege z abanyamerika mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi ku butaka bw abanazi n ubwo bagenzuraga muri toni miriyoni 1.5 zasutswe n indege, B 17 niyo yasutse ibisasu byinshi aho ibarirwa mu matoni bihumbi 640 by amabombe yituye ku butaka bw abanazi mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi. Iyi ndege yakozwe n abanyamerika ahagana mu mwaka w I 1935 ariko itangira kuguruka 1938 nuko ihagarikwa mu gukoreshwa bwanyuma mu mwaka w i 1968 mu gisirikare cya Brazil kirwanira mu kirere.

Mu 1934 tariki 8 z ukwa munani United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) yashyize kw isoko ipiganwa ku kubaka indege z intambara zagombaga kuba zifite engines/ moteri nyinshi zagombaga gusimbura izitwaga Martin B-10. Izi  bazishakaga ngo zijye gutanga umusaada ku barwanira mu kirere mu birwa bya Hawaii, Panama ndetse na Alaska. Ibisabwa byari ukuba yatwara imizigo y amabombe iremereye cyane ku butumburuke bwa metero 3 000 mu gihe cy amasaha 10 igendera ku muvuduko wa 200 mph cyangwa se 320km/h.Ikindi USAAC yifuzaga nubwo bitari mu bisabwa byari ukuba iyi ndege yagenda ibirometero 3 200 ku muvuduko w ibirometero 400 ku isaha (400 km/h). Aha Boeing yagiye mu ipiganwa ihanganye na Douglas yari yazanye type yayo ya Douglas DB-1 ndetse na Martin Model 146 ku kibuga cy indege cya Wilbur Wright muri Dayton, Ohio muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Boeing B 17 Model 299 yabo yari yakozwe n abenjenyeri bayobowe na E. Gifford  Emery na Edward Curtis Wells ifite imbunda 5 za 30 caliber (7.62mm) machine guns ishobora kwikorera toni 2.2 by ibisasu iyi ndege yari itwawe na moteri 4 za Pratt & Whitney R-1690 buri imwe ikora 750hp (600 Kw) ku butumburuke bwa metero 2 100.

Tariki 27 Nyakanga 1935 umunyamakuru Richard Williams w ikinyamakuru Seattle Times nyuma yo kubona izo mbunda B 17 Model 299 niwe wavuze ati iyi ni 15 ton flying fortress niko guhimbwa “Flying Fortress”. Bwa mbere yagurutse tariki 28 Nyakanga 1935 itwawe n umukuru w aba pilote bakora amatests muri Boeing witwaga Leslie Tower. Tariki 20 Kanama 1935 nibwo iyi prototype ya B 17 yahagurutse iva ku kibuga cy indege cya Seattle yerekeza ku cya Wright Field mu masaha 9 n iminota 3 aha ni mu ntera y ibirometero 3 800 aho yagenderaga ku muvuduko wa 406 km/h aho yasumbaga umuvuduko wari watswe mu marushanwa y isoko isumba kure mu bubasha iza DB-1 ndetse na Model 146. Gusa tariki 30 Ukwakira 1935 nibwo Major Ployer Peter Hill wo muri USAAC ndetse na Les Tower bagurutsaga Model 299 bwa kabiri muri test yayo ya kabiri gusa bakibagirwa gukuramo icyitwa “gust locks” ibi byatumye indege ibura control iri mu kirere niko gukora impanuka ibica bombi. Iyi mpanuka niyo yatumye Boeing idatsindira iri soko niko kuriha Douglas kuri 58 200$ yicyo gihe ubu ahwanye na miriyoni 1.09 $ y ubu. Mu gihe Boeing yagombaga kubona $99 620 bihwanye na miriyoni 1.86 y amadollars yubu gusa ibi ntibyayibujije kuza kugurwa nyuma ubwo Ubwongereza na Amerika byinjiraga mu ntambara ya kabiri yose. Ahabanza zagiye zigira ibibazo byinshi kugeza zigeze aho ziba agatangaza niko kuyogoza burayi bwari bwarigaruriwe n abanazi no gusuka amatoni y ibisasu mu mbere mu Budage bwa Hitler ubundi arashoberwa karahava zisenya bidasubirwaho inganda n imijyi bye. Izi zarekeye gukorwa mu mwaka 1945 nyuma yuko bamaze gukora izigera mu 12 731 zikaba zarakorerwaga muri Boeing Plant 2 yabaga Seattle, Washington (BO) ndetse na California. Buri imwe yabaga yagurwa amafaranga angana na $ 238,329 (1945) ariyo miriyoni 2.7$ mu yo mu 2018.

Ngibi bimwe mu biranga B 17 mu bipimo byayo:

  • Crew (10): Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer/top turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
  • Uburebure: 66 m
  • Uburebure bw ibaba: 62 m
  • Uburebure: 82 m
  • Ubuso bw ibaba: 92 m2
  • Ibiro byayo idahetse: 16,391 kg
  • Ibiro byayo ihetse: 24,500 kg
  • Ibiro byinshi byanyuma yahagurukana: 29,700 kg
  • Imbaraga za moteri: 4 × Wright R-1820-97 “Cyclone” turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) kuri buri imwe
  • Ibipanga bya moteri: 3-bladed Hamilton-Standard constant-speed propeller

  • IMIKORERE
  • Maximum speed:462 km/h, 249 kn
  • Cruise speed: 293 km/h, 158 kn
  • Range: 3,219 km hamwe na 2,700 kg byaza bombload
  • Service ceiling: 10,850 m
  • Rate of climb:6 m/s
  • Wing loading:7 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 150 W/kg

Armament

  • Imbunda:13 × .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns
  • Bombs:
    • Short range missions (<400 mi): 3,600 kg
    • Long range missions (≈800 mi): 2,000 kg
    • Overload: 7,800 kg

 

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URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA MBERE)

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Mortiers, mitrailleuses, urufaya rw amabombe byatwituragaho ubutitsa uko bukeye nuko bwije, yari mw ijoro ariko twabashaga kubona aba vietm Minh bamanuka imisozi ndetse abashinzwe kurashisha ibibunda biremereye bamisha amasasu yabo ku birindiro by abafaransa bari bakambitse aha muri Dien Bien Phu mu ntera ya km 16 z uburebure ndetse n umunani (8) z ubugari aha hari hahuriye abasirikare ibihumbi 94 (94 000) aho abavietmihn bari ibihumbi 80 (80 000) naho abafaransa bari ibihumbi 14 (14 000). Uru rwari urugamba rukomeye rwari rubayeho nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi. Aha amategeko y intambara abavietminh ntibayumvaga nyuma y intsinzi iruhanyije bari bagize niko gufata bunyago abasirikare ibihumbi 12 (12 000) b abafaransa bakabica babatoteje harokotse mbarwa hataha abasaga gato ibihumbi 3 (3 000) gusa buzuye intimba, ubwoba n ikimwaro bari bakuye muri Vietnam aha hari mu 1954. Aha abafaransa bishwe barashwe bari basaga gato ibihumbi 8 (8 000) nabwo babakuyemo inzara n amenyo nyuma yo gufungirwa mu mazi mu gihe kitari gito.

Intambara nka kimwe mu bikorwa byaranzwe ndetse bwamenyerewe mu mibereho y ikiremwamuntu zagiye zihindura imiterere y ubutegetsi ndetse n imibereho y abantu mu gace kamwe cyangwa akandi mw isi ndetse no mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Dien Bien Phu aha ni hamwe mu hapfukamishije abafaransa mu mateka y intambara mu bihe bya vuba ndetse nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi kuko aha naho bapfukamishijwe bikomeye n igisirikare cy abanazi ba Hitler Wehrmacht kigizwe na Heer yo ku butaka, Kriegsmarine bo mu mazi ndetse na Luftwaffe yarwaniraga mu kirere. Intambara yo muri Vietnam yiswe the First Indochina war aho yamaze imyaka isaga 8 yashyizweho akadomo n intsinzi y abarwanyi b abavietmihn bamaze guha isomo rya gisirikare abafaransa bari abakoroni bagataha bimyiza imoso ari bo barwanye intambara ndetse n abanyamerika babateraga inkunga y amafaranga aho batanze isaga miriyoni 300 z amadollars. Ibi byose byigisha ko abagenerari b ibihugu bikomeye mu bya gisirikare bakunda gusuzugura abo bahanganye nabo bibwira ko nta bushobozi mu gukora intambara bafite cyangwa se bashoboye ibi bikaganisha ku kurimburira rimwe ingabo zabo bayoboye no guhindura igice cyaho intsinzi ya gisirikare igana. Mbere yuko tuvuga ku mutwe w inkuru yacu y uyu munsi, reka turebere hamwe inkomoko ndetse n intandaro by uru rugamba duhereye atari kure cyane mu mizi kugira ngo tugire ishusho y imvano y iyi ntambara.

Ibi byose byatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19 ubwo ibihugu byo mu Burayi byiyita “Old Continent” byajyaga mu masiganwa yo kwigwizaho ibihugu byo gukoroniza ngo babone aho bakura ibikoresho nkenerwa basubiza mu bihugu byabo ngo bahaze inganda zabo zari zicyaduka, nibwo abafaransa nabo batangiraga ukwisuka muri Indochine agace kari muri Aziya ahagana muri 1859 ndetse mu 1885 bari baramaze kwigarurira ibice binini byaho. Indochina y abafaransa yashinzwe ku itariki 17 Ukwakira 1887 aho bahurizaga hamwe Vietnam (yarigizwe na Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina), ubwami bwa Cambodia, na Laos  iyi yongereweho nyuma y intambara Franco-Siamese War mu mwaka w i 1893 bakabigira colonies zabo. Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rwaje nk iherezo ry ubukoroni bw abafaransa muri Indochina, ariko ntibahavuye mu mahoro byasabye kunyura mu ntambara intambara itaroroshye cyangwa ngo yihute kuko yararambye imara imyaka umunani (8) yose ishyamiranyije abavietminh ndetse n abafaransa bari banafite mu ngabo zabo abalaos, abanyamaroc, abanyarijeriya, abanyacambodia ndetse n abatais. Nyamara intambara iza nk igisubizo cya nyuma cya nyuma kuko izindi nzira z ibiganiro mbese zose zose zananiwe impande ebyiri zishyamiranye zitumvikana cyangwa zitabyumva kimwe.

Nshuti reka igice cya mbere tugihinire aha, ntuzacikwe n ibindi bice aho tuzavuga byimbitse kuri uru rugamba ndetse n intandaro zayo tutibagiwe n ingaruka zayiturutseho.
Murakoze murakarama!!!!

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IMBUNDA YA M 16

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M 16 Rifle ni imwe mu ntwaro cyane cyane imbunda yazamuye ibendera rya Amerika mu mateka y isi. Iyi mbunda ni 5.56mm, M 16 aho yakomotse kuri ArmaLite AR-15 yo muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, iya mbere yiyi yari ifite magazine ijyamo amasasu 20 nyuma yaho mu 1969 M 16 A1 yahawe bolt-assist igizwe na chrome ndetse inahabwa magazine y amasasu 30 kandi ikaba automatic. Iyi mbunda yahimbwe n uwitwa Eugene Stoner afatanyije na L. James Sullivan mu 1959 mu gihugu cy igihangange cya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bikozwe n inganda nyinshi harimo nka za:

  • Colt’s Manufacturing Company
  • Daewoo Precision Industries
  • FN Herstal
  • Bushmaster
  • H&R Firearms
  • General Motors Hydramatic Division
  • Elisco ndetse na,
  • U.S. Ordnance

Zatangiye gukorwa mu 1963 kugeza magingo aya, muri 2003 hamaze gukorwa izisaga miriyoni 8. Iyi ni imbunda wakoresha nkuko Avtomat Kalashnikov (AK 47) yanyanyagiye hose niyi nayo wayikoresha wigishwa bike ubundi ibisigaye aba ari nko gukina umukino wa dame unyereza amapiyo ku yandi. Iyi yakoreshejwe cyangwa yarwanye mu ntambara zose abanyamerika bishoyemo nk intambara yo muri Vietnam, Somali civil war, Salvadoran Civil war, ahandi ni muri Korea, Rhodesian Bush war, First Congo war, Iraq war, Gulf ndetse n izindi nyinshi.

Aha rero tugana ku musozo w iyi nkuru reka turebe ibigize iyi ntwaro y agatangaza y abanyamerika, imbunda wakwigondera ku mafaranga atari munsi ya 500 y amadollars y amanyamerika.

Specifications (M16)
Ibiro ipima 2.89 kg (unloaded)
3.40 kg (loaded)
Uburebure 1,003 mm
Uburebure bwa Barrel 508 mm

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO (M193)
Caliber 5.56 mm
Action cyangwa uko ikora Gas-operated cyangwa rotating bolt
Umuvuduko wo kurasa 700–950 rounds/min cyclic sustained
45–60 rounds/min semi-automatic
Umuvuduko isasu risoohokana 960 m/s
Effective firing range 550 m point target
800 m Area target
Maximum firing range 3,600 m
Feed system STANAG magazine
20-round detachable box magazine:
96 g empty / 335 g full

30-round detachable box magazine:
117 g empty / 480 g full

Beta C-Mag 100-round double-lobed drum:
1,000 g empty / 2,180 g full

Murakoze mugire ibihe byiza!

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