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Amateka

INKOMOKO YA RUTEMIKIRERE

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Mu mateka y ikiremwamuntu nka kimwe mu binyabuzima bimaze igihe gito ariko cyabashije kwivumburira ikoranabuhanga ryihariye ryatumye aba icyo aricyo ubu, byamusunikiye kugushaka no kuvumbura ibikorwa by indashyikirwa byabayeho mu mateka ye. Uyu munsi turarebera hamwe amateka n urugendo rw indege yakozwe n umuntu uko rwatangiye Imyaka ibihumbi byinshi irashije (hafi imyaka amagana mbere ya Yezu).

Mu bwami bw abami bw abashinwa buherereye mu burasirazuba buhera (China) ubwami bumaze imyaka ibihumbi bitatu, ahanga mu myaka magana nibwo hadukaga ibisa n igitekerezo cyagejeje ikiremwamuntu ku kuguruka mu kirere nk inyoni. Ikigaragaza ko ari bimwe mu bitekerezo birambye mw isi nuko ubisanga mu bice bitandukanye by isi nko mu Bugereki, mu Buhindi, mu Bushinwa ndetse n ahandi mu Burayi ahagana mu myaka magana ishize. Nkuko bizwi nka Aviation mu cyongereza, bikomoka mu rurimi rw ikilatini bikomoka kuri AVIS (inyoni) ndetse na ICTION bisobanura igikorwa wayahuza bikarema ijambo rivuga ngo igikorwa cy inyoni.

Mu bitekerezo byaranze amateka y iguruka ry abantu ushobora kuba warumvise umubyeyi n umuhungu we bagurutse bakoresheje amababa bikoreye. Daedalus na Icarus abagereki babaye ibyamamare aho basimbutse baturuka ku munara muremure bagerageza kuguruka ariko Icarus aza gupfa ahanutse ubwo se yamubuzaga kuguruka cyane asatira izuba kugira ngo amababa ye adashonga nyamara agatwarwa n umunyenga kugeza aho amababa ye ashongeye. Ahagana muri 880s AD uwitwa Abbas Ibn Firnas yiyambitse ibibabi by inkongoro ku maboko yombi nk amababa nuko asimbuka mu mujyi wa Cordoba muri Esipanye, yabashije kuguruka ariko mu kumanuka ananirwa kubona uburyo kuko umurizo w inyoni ugira akamaro mu kugira ngo ibe yaguruka cyangwa ngo imanuke ihagarare. Firnas yaravunitse ariko yabaye umwe mu bantu batanze ishusho y indege ziguruka magingo aya.

igihangano gifata ishusho bitewe naho kigeze cyubakwa, niko n ibikorwa by indege byagenze ku kugeza kw ishusho tubona ubu. Ahagana muri mu binyejana bibanza bya nyuma ya Yezu, mu Bushinwa hari ibyitwa kites abana benshi babikinishaga aho babikoraga mu mashashi ubundi bakabizirikaho imigozi miremire ubundi ukakareka kakaguruka kure cyane gatwawe n umuyaga.

Ubundi buryo bwari ubwa hot balloons (mbuze inyito mu kinyarwanda) aho bikekwa ko ibi byatangijwe mu Bushinwa mu myaka 2500 ishize aho yakoreshwaga mu birori ndetse no mu gushyingura. Nabwo umuhanga Joseph Needham avuga ko zigeze gukoreshwa mu bikorwa bya gisirikare n umujenerari w umushinwa ahagana muri 180-234 AD witwa Zhuge Liang akanga abasirikare bari bahanganye.

Leonardo da Vinci nawe ntiyatanzwe aho ahagana muri 1505 yakoze ibyo nakwita nk ibishushanyo mbonera by indege cyane cyane iyakoreshejwe muri kajugujugu, ibi yabikoze amaze kwiga uko inyoni n uducurama uko tuguruka imyaka ijana irenga mbere y ubushakashatsi bw umuhanga mu by ubugenge Sir Isaac Newtons wabitangaje ahagana mu 1687.

Abandi bakurikiyeho ni Francesco Lana de Terzi ahagana muri 1670, Bartolomeu de Gusmao mu 1709, Abafaransa b abavandimwe bitwa Montgolfier mu 1783, abavandimwe baba Robert (Robert brothers) ahagana mu 1783 nabo bakaba bari abafaransa, ahagana muri 1863 muri civil war y abanyamerika yifashishijwe n uwitwa Ferdinand von Zepplin wabarizwaga mu mutwe witwaga Union Army Balloon Corps wari warayishyizweho na Thaddeus S. C. Lowe wari wahawe ububasha na Perezida wicyo gihugu.

Mu kinyejana cya cumi n icyenda Sir George Cayley ufatwa nk uwahanze indege kuko yize ubugenge bw ibiguruka anashushanya imashini yarigezweho muri icyo gihe  Sir George niwe wagize uruhare runini mu bya siyanse ku migurukire y indege no kugeza kubizaba biyigize. Abaje kumenyekana ni Wright brothers tariki 17 Ukuboza 1903 Orville Wright yagurutse metero 37 mu masegonda 12 naho umuvandimwe we Wilbur Wright aguruka metero 260 mu masegonda 59 igendera kuri metero 10 ivuye ku butaka, izi nizo ngendo za mbere z indege zabaye ku mugaragaro kuko hari abatangabuhamya b ubwoko butandukanye nk amato 3 y abashinzwe ubutabazi bwo mu mazi, umushoramari wo muri ako gace ndetse n umusore umwe wo muri ako gace ari uko zabaye ingendo za mbere zabaye ku karubanda.

Nyuma yaha hakurikiyeho ubundi buvumbuzi buhambaye ndetse haduka n inganda zikora indenge nka Boeing, Airbus, Pilatus, Embraer, Bombardier, Dassault Falcon n izindi n izindi. Mu 1914 ubwo intambara ya mbere y isi yabagaho, indege zifashishijwe bwa mbere n abongereza bazikoresha mu kuneka nyuma yaho bazishyiraho imbunda zitangira kurwana nazo. Mu gihe cy intambara ya kabiri y isi hubatswe izihambaye zirwana zikanasenya imijyi mu buryo bworoshye dushobora kuzagarukaho mu nkuru zacu z ahazaza ariko noneho intambara irangiye indege ntizari bujugunywe ahubwo barazihinduye bashyiramo aho abantu bicara zihinduka izitwara abantu uko.

Amasiganwa yo guhanga indege z igitangaza yarakomeje ku guhera imiyaka ibihumbi byinshi aho bagurukishaga amababa akozwe mu bibabi by inkongoro kukugeza aho batwara abantu benshi bagera muri magana atanu ndetse n izindi zikorera ibintu.

Ndabashimiye cyane inkuru zacu n akagaruka,

Mugire amahoro n imigisha biva ku Mana!

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"Until the lions have their own historians, the history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter." ~African proverb A Universe and history lover

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Amateka

URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA KABIRI)

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Nkuko twari twabigarutseho mu gice cya mbere cy inkuru yacu ku rugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu, uyu munsi turakomerezaho tureba ese ni iyihe yabaye intandaro y ukuneshwa n ikimwaro abafaransa bakuye muri Vietnam? Niba utarasomye igice cya mbere kanda iyi link abe ariho uhera kugira ngo ubyumve neza https://yegob.rw/urugamba-rwa-dien-bien-phu-igice-cya-mbere/

Nkuko mu bindi bihugu byari byarakoronijwe abantu babyo bajyanywe n abakoroni mu ntambara niko kubona ko nabo bagamburuzwa yewe ndetse bagatabwa muri yombi niko kugaruka bashaka ubwigenge ariko hamwe na hamwe babaga barabijeje ubwigenge nibaramuka babahaye abarwanyi. Abaturage ba Vietnam nyuma yuko abayapani babigaruriye mu gihe cy intambara ya kabiri y isi yose nubwo yariho irangira ninabwo abayapani bamanikaga amaboko bamaze kubaturaho ibisasu kirimbuzi bya bombe atomique muri Hiroshima na Nagasaki mu 1945 bavuye muri Indochina bayisigira aba viet minh banabohoza Hanoi niko guhita bavuga ko Vietnam yigenze, Aba Việt Minh yari national independence coalition yashingiwe ahitwa Pác Bó ishinzwe na Hồ Chí Minh tariki 19 Gicurasi, 1941. Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội bari barashingiwe muri Nanjing, mu Bushinwa, hagati y ukwa munani 1935 no mu ntangiriro ya za 1936 ubwo amashyaka Vietnamese nationalist yishyiraga hamwe ngo arwanye ba gashakabuhake babaga barayogoje igihugu cyabo. Nyamara aba barazimye ntihagira icyo bakora ku bibazo byabo , yongeye kuzanirwa imbaraga n ishyaka ry abakomunisti yitwaga dochinese Communist Party (ICP) na Hồ Chí Minh mu 1941. Abaviệt Minh nibo bonyine basigaye barigize abarwanya abakoroni b abafaransa ndetse no kwigarurira Indochina bayambura abayapani.

Abaviet Mihn (Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi) aho mu cyongereza bishaka kuvuga League for the Independence of Vietnam bayobowe na Ho Chi Minh mu rwego rwa politiki naho mu rwego rwa gisirikare bayobowe na generari Vo Nguyen Giap bacengeye muri Vietnam mu mpera za 1943 n abaviet minh be niko guhangana n abayapani yigumura kuri occupation yabo, aha hari mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi niko guhita atangira intambara ya guerrilla. Ubwo bari muri iyo ntambara nibwo bigaruriraga ibice binini by amajyaruguru ya Vietnam nyuma nabwo babohoza Hanoi niko guhita bashing leta yigenga bayita Independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Ibi ntibyarangiriye aho, abafaransa ntibari biteguye gutankaza inyungu bari bafite mu bice bya Indochina niko guhita bagaruka nk abakoroni birengagiza ndetse ntibakwemera ubutegetsi bushya bwari bugiyeho. Bidatinze abavietminh nabo ntibari biteguye gusubira munsi y ibendera ry abafaransa niko kurahira ko kugeza ku wanyuma wabo bazarwana mpaka umufaransa wanyuma avuye muri Vietnam cyangwa abanyavietnam bose bagashirira ku nkota bose bagapfa. .

Nibwo intambara yubuye hagati y abaviet mihn bayobowe na Ho Chi Min ndetse na generari Vo Nguyen Giap ndetse n abafaransa bayobowe n abagenerari benshi kuko basimburanywe muri Vietnam ari nako bashyikirizwa inkiko za gisirikare basobanura impamvu n icyabateye gutsindwa intambara. Iyi ntambara yiswe the first Indochina war, yatangiye tariki 19 Ukuboza 1946 irangira 1 Kanama 1954 irangirana intsinzi y abavietminh. Mbere yuko twinjira mu ntambara reka hagire amagambo amwe mumenya kuko tuzajya tuyabona kenshi ndetse tunayababwira icyo ashaka kuvuga.mu magambo yoroheje, harimo nka Garrison, Division, Battalion, Legionnaire, nandi nandi menshi.

 

Garrison bisobanura itsinda ry abasirikare baba bakambitse mu mutamenwa cyangwa mu mujyi kugira ngo bawurinde bikomeye ngo umwanzi atinjiramo. Infantry yo n i igisirikare kirwanira ku butaka ndetse banagendesha amaguru. Corps ni igice cy ingabo nyinshi aho iba igizwe na Divisions ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi cyane aho iba igizwe hagati y abasirikare 50 000 n 100 000 ikayoborwa n Lieutenant Generari. Division mu gisirikare ni unit ya gisirikare iba igizwe n abasirikare 10 000- 25 000, aha ahenshi iba igizwe na Regiments nyinshi cyangwa Brigades nyinshi ikayoborwa na General Officer Commanding aho i rank rye aba ari Major General. Brigade ni igice cya Division cyangwa se Subdivision y igisirikare aho iba igizwe n umubare muto wa infantry Battalions, regiments, squadrons ndetse nizindi units bigize Division, iyi ikaba iyoborwa na Brigadier General cyangwa se Senior Colonel igizwe n abasirikare basaga gato hagati y 3000- 5 000. Legionnaire ni umutwe w ingabo z abafaransa washinzwe mu 1831, aba aba ni infantry iba yarahawe imyitozo ihambaye ikaba ikorera hanze y igihugu cy ubufaransa ndetse n abanyamahanga bashobora kwinjizwamo.

Reka tube ducumbikiye aha tuzakomeza icyumweru gitaha!
Mugire amahoro!!!

 

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Amateka

Boeing B-17 FLYING FORTRESS

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Boeing B-17 mu kabyiniriro kayo “Flying Fortress” mu Kinyarwanda bisobanura inzu y umutamenwa iguruka. Impamvu nuko yari bombardier ariko ikirenzeho ikaba yarabashaga kwirindira umutekano aho yari ifite imbunda zigera muri 13 za 12.7 mm machine guns zivuye kuri 5 ubwo yatangiraga gukorwa. Ikindi nuko iyi yarasiraga mu ntera yo hejuru kure cyane ndetse inanyaruka ku muvuduko wari ntagereranywa ikindi kandi inakomeye kuko yabashaga gusubira ku bibuga by indege yahagurukiyeho yarashweho bikomeye cyane n umwanzi abayigize batahungabanyijwe cyane n amasau yabo bahanganye.

Boeing B 17 yagize ibikorwa bikomeye uhereye kuri version yayo ya mbere kugeza kuya nyuma. Gusa iyi ni indege yamamaye mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi (WW II) ubwo yakoreshwaga iyogoza amato, indege ndetse n inganda z abanzi bari bahanganye n ibihugu byishize hamwe ngo birwanye abanazi n abayapani. Mu matoni y amabombe yarashwe ndetse yasutswe n indege z abanyamerika mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi ku butaka bw abanazi n ubwo bagenzuraga muri toni miriyoni 1.5 zasutswe n indege, B 17 niyo yasutse ibisasu byinshi aho ibarirwa mu matoni bihumbi 640 by amabombe yituye ku butaka bw abanazi mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi. Iyi ndege yakozwe n abanyamerika ahagana mu mwaka w I 1935 ariko itangira kuguruka 1938 nuko ihagarikwa mu gukoreshwa bwanyuma mu mwaka w i 1968 mu gisirikare cya Brazil kirwanira mu kirere.

Mu 1934 tariki 8 z ukwa munani United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) yashyize kw isoko ipiganwa ku kubaka indege z intambara zagombaga kuba zifite engines/ moteri nyinshi zagombaga gusimbura izitwaga Martin B-10. Izi  bazishakaga ngo zijye gutanga umusaada ku barwanira mu kirere mu birwa bya Hawaii, Panama ndetse na Alaska. Ibisabwa byari ukuba yatwara imizigo y amabombe iremereye cyane ku butumburuke bwa metero 3 000 mu gihe cy amasaha 10 igendera ku muvuduko wa 200 mph cyangwa se 320km/h.Ikindi USAAC yifuzaga nubwo bitari mu bisabwa byari ukuba iyi ndege yagenda ibirometero 3 200 ku muvuduko w ibirometero 400 ku isaha (400 km/h). Aha Boeing yagiye mu ipiganwa ihanganye na Douglas yari yazanye type yayo ya Douglas DB-1 ndetse na Martin Model 146 ku kibuga cy indege cya Wilbur Wright muri Dayton, Ohio muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Boeing B 17 Model 299 yabo yari yakozwe n abenjenyeri bayobowe na E. Gifford  Emery na Edward Curtis Wells ifite imbunda 5 za 30 caliber (7.62mm) machine guns ishobora kwikorera toni 2.2 by ibisasu iyi ndege yari itwawe na moteri 4 za Pratt & Whitney R-1690 buri imwe ikora 750hp (600 Kw) ku butumburuke bwa metero 2 100.

Tariki 27 Nyakanga 1935 umunyamakuru Richard Williams w ikinyamakuru Seattle Times nyuma yo kubona izo mbunda B 17 Model 299 niwe wavuze ati iyi ni 15 ton flying fortress niko guhimbwa “Flying Fortress”. Bwa mbere yagurutse tariki 28 Nyakanga 1935 itwawe n umukuru w aba pilote bakora amatests muri Boeing witwaga Leslie Tower. Tariki 20 Kanama 1935 nibwo iyi prototype ya B 17 yahagurutse iva ku kibuga cy indege cya Seattle yerekeza ku cya Wright Field mu masaha 9 n iminota 3 aha ni mu ntera y ibirometero 3 800 aho yagenderaga ku muvuduko wa 406 km/h aho yasumbaga umuvuduko wari watswe mu marushanwa y isoko isumba kure mu bubasha iza DB-1 ndetse na Model 146. Gusa tariki 30 Ukwakira 1935 nibwo Major Ployer Peter Hill wo muri USAAC ndetse na Les Tower bagurutsaga Model 299 bwa kabiri muri test yayo ya kabiri gusa bakibagirwa gukuramo icyitwa “gust locks” ibi byatumye indege ibura control iri mu kirere niko gukora impanuka ibica bombi. Iyi mpanuka niyo yatumye Boeing idatsindira iri soko niko kuriha Douglas kuri 58 200$ yicyo gihe ubu ahwanye na miriyoni 1.09 $ y ubu. Mu gihe Boeing yagombaga kubona $99 620 bihwanye na miriyoni 1.86 y amadollars yubu gusa ibi ntibyayibujije kuza kugurwa nyuma ubwo Ubwongereza na Amerika byinjiraga mu ntambara ya kabiri yose. Ahabanza zagiye zigira ibibazo byinshi kugeza zigeze aho ziba agatangaza niko kuyogoza burayi bwari bwarigaruriwe n abanazi no gusuka amatoni y ibisasu mu mbere mu Budage bwa Hitler ubundi arashoberwa karahava zisenya bidasubirwaho inganda n imijyi bye. Izi zarekeye gukorwa mu mwaka 1945 nyuma yuko bamaze gukora izigera mu 12 731 zikaba zarakorerwaga muri Boeing Plant 2 yabaga Seattle, Washington (BO) ndetse na California. Buri imwe yabaga yagurwa amafaranga angana na $ 238,329 (1945) ariyo miriyoni 2.7$ mu yo mu 2018.

Ngibi bimwe mu biranga B 17 mu bipimo byayo:

  • Crew (10): Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer/top turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
  • Uburebure: 66 m
  • Uburebure bw ibaba: 62 m
  • Uburebure: 82 m
  • Ubuso bw ibaba: 92 m2
  • Ibiro byayo idahetse: 16,391 kg
  • Ibiro byayo ihetse: 24,500 kg
  • Ibiro byinshi byanyuma yahagurukana: 29,700 kg
  • Imbaraga za moteri: 4 × Wright R-1820-97 “Cyclone” turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) kuri buri imwe
  • Ibipanga bya moteri: 3-bladed Hamilton-Standard constant-speed propeller

  • IMIKORERE
  • Maximum speed:462 km/h, 249 kn
  • Cruise speed: 293 km/h, 158 kn
  • Range: 3,219 km hamwe na 2,700 kg byaza bombload
  • Service ceiling: 10,850 m
  • Rate of climb:6 m/s
  • Wing loading:7 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 150 W/kg

Armament

  • Imbunda:13 × .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns
  • Bombs:
    • Short range missions (<400 mi): 3,600 kg
    • Long range missions (≈800 mi): 2,000 kg
    • Overload: 7,800 kg

 

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Amateka

URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA MBERE)

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Mortiers, mitrailleuses, urufaya rw amabombe byatwituragaho ubutitsa uko bukeye nuko bwije, yari mw ijoro ariko twabashaga kubona aba vietm Minh bamanuka imisozi ndetse abashinzwe kurashisha ibibunda biremereye bamisha amasasu yabo ku birindiro by abafaransa bari bakambitse aha muri Dien Bien Phu mu ntera ya km 16 z uburebure ndetse n umunani (8) z ubugari aha hari hahuriye abasirikare ibihumbi 94 (94 000) aho abavietmihn bari ibihumbi 80 (80 000) naho abafaransa bari ibihumbi 14 (14 000). Uru rwari urugamba rukomeye rwari rubayeho nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi. Aha amategeko y intambara abavietminh ntibayumvaga nyuma y intsinzi iruhanyije bari bagize niko gufata bunyago abasirikare ibihumbi 12 (12 000) b abafaransa bakabica babatoteje harokotse mbarwa hataha abasaga gato ibihumbi 3 (3 000) gusa buzuye intimba, ubwoba n ikimwaro bari bakuye muri Vietnam aha hari mu 1954. Aha abafaransa bishwe barashwe bari basaga gato ibihumbi 8 (8 000) nabwo babakuyemo inzara n amenyo nyuma yo gufungirwa mu mazi mu gihe kitari gito.

Intambara nka kimwe mu bikorwa byaranzwe ndetse bwamenyerewe mu mibereho y ikiremwamuntu zagiye zihindura imiterere y ubutegetsi ndetse n imibereho y abantu mu gace kamwe cyangwa akandi mw isi ndetse no mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Dien Bien Phu aha ni hamwe mu hapfukamishije abafaransa mu mateka y intambara mu bihe bya vuba ndetse nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi kuko aha naho bapfukamishijwe bikomeye n igisirikare cy abanazi ba Hitler Wehrmacht kigizwe na Heer yo ku butaka, Kriegsmarine bo mu mazi ndetse na Luftwaffe yarwaniraga mu kirere. Intambara yo muri Vietnam yiswe the First Indochina war aho yamaze imyaka isaga 8 yashyizweho akadomo n intsinzi y abarwanyi b abavietmihn bamaze guha isomo rya gisirikare abafaransa bari abakoroni bagataha bimyiza imoso ari bo barwanye intambara ndetse n abanyamerika babateraga inkunga y amafaranga aho batanze isaga miriyoni 300 z amadollars. Ibi byose byigisha ko abagenerari b ibihugu bikomeye mu bya gisirikare bakunda gusuzugura abo bahanganye nabo bibwira ko nta bushobozi mu gukora intambara bafite cyangwa se bashoboye ibi bikaganisha ku kurimburira rimwe ingabo zabo bayoboye no guhindura igice cyaho intsinzi ya gisirikare igana. Mbere yuko tuvuga ku mutwe w inkuru yacu y uyu munsi, reka turebere hamwe inkomoko ndetse n intandaro by uru rugamba duhereye atari kure cyane mu mizi kugira ngo tugire ishusho y imvano y iyi ntambara.

Ibi byose byatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19 ubwo ibihugu byo mu Burayi byiyita “Old Continent” byajyaga mu masiganwa yo kwigwizaho ibihugu byo gukoroniza ngo babone aho bakura ibikoresho nkenerwa basubiza mu bihugu byabo ngo bahaze inganda zabo zari zicyaduka, nibwo abafaransa nabo batangiraga ukwisuka muri Indochine agace kari muri Aziya ahagana muri 1859 ndetse mu 1885 bari baramaze kwigarurira ibice binini byaho. Indochina y abafaransa yashinzwe ku itariki 17 Ukwakira 1887 aho bahurizaga hamwe Vietnam (yarigizwe na Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina), ubwami bwa Cambodia, na Laos  iyi yongereweho nyuma y intambara Franco-Siamese War mu mwaka w i 1893 bakabigira colonies zabo. Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rwaje nk iherezo ry ubukoroni bw abafaransa muri Indochina, ariko ntibahavuye mu mahoro byasabye kunyura mu ntambara intambara itaroroshye cyangwa ngo yihute kuko yararambye imara imyaka umunani (8) yose ishyamiranyije abavietminh ndetse n abafaransa bari banafite mu ngabo zabo abalaos, abanyamaroc, abanyarijeriya, abanyacambodia ndetse n abatais. Nyamara intambara iza nk igisubizo cya nyuma cya nyuma kuko izindi nzira z ibiganiro mbese zose zose zananiwe impande ebyiri zishyamiranye zitumvikana cyangwa zitabyumva kimwe.

Nshuti reka igice cya mbere tugihinire aha, ntuzacikwe n ibindi bice aho tuzavuga byimbitse kuri uru rugamba ndetse n intandaro zayo tutibagiwe n ingaruka zayiturutseho.
Murakoze murakarama!!!!

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Amateka

IMBUNDA YA M 16

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M 16 Rifle ni imwe mu ntwaro cyane cyane imbunda yazamuye ibendera rya Amerika mu mateka y isi. Iyi mbunda ni 5.56mm, M 16 aho yakomotse kuri ArmaLite AR-15 yo muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, iya mbere yiyi yari ifite magazine ijyamo amasasu 20 nyuma yaho mu 1969 M 16 A1 yahawe bolt-assist igizwe na chrome ndetse inahabwa magazine y amasasu 30 kandi ikaba automatic. Iyi mbunda yahimbwe n uwitwa Eugene Stoner afatanyije na L. James Sullivan mu 1959 mu gihugu cy igihangange cya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bikozwe n inganda nyinshi harimo nka za:

  • Colt’s Manufacturing Company
  • Daewoo Precision Industries
  • FN Herstal
  • Bushmaster
  • H&R Firearms
  • General Motors Hydramatic Division
  • Elisco ndetse na,
  • U.S. Ordnance

Zatangiye gukorwa mu 1963 kugeza magingo aya, muri 2003 hamaze gukorwa izisaga miriyoni 8. Iyi ni imbunda wakoresha nkuko Avtomat Kalashnikov (AK 47) yanyanyagiye hose niyi nayo wayikoresha wigishwa bike ubundi ibisigaye aba ari nko gukina umukino wa dame unyereza amapiyo ku yandi. Iyi yakoreshejwe cyangwa yarwanye mu ntambara zose abanyamerika bishoyemo nk intambara yo muri Vietnam, Somali civil war, Salvadoran Civil war, ahandi ni muri Korea, Rhodesian Bush war, First Congo war, Iraq war, Gulf ndetse n izindi nyinshi.

Aha rero tugana ku musozo w iyi nkuru reka turebe ibigize iyi ntwaro y agatangaza y abanyamerika, imbunda wakwigondera ku mafaranga atari munsi ya 500 y amadollars y amanyamerika.

Specifications (M16)
Ibiro ipima 2.89 kg (unloaded)
3.40 kg (loaded)
Uburebure 1,003 mm
Uburebure bwa Barrel 508 mm

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO (M193)
Caliber 5.56 mm
Action cyangwa uko ikora Gas-operated cyangwa rotating bolt
Umuvuduko wo kurasa 700–950 rounds/min cyclic sustained
45–60 rounds/min semi-automatic
Umuvuduko isasu risoohokana 960 m/s
Effective firing range 550 m point target
800 m Area target
Maximum firing range 3,600 m
Feed system STANAG magazine
20-round detachable box magazine:
96 g empty / 335 g full

30-round detachable box magazine:
117 g empty / 480 g full

Beta C-Mag 100-round double-lobed drum:
1,000 g empty / 2,180 g full

Murakoze mugire ibihe byiza!

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Amateka

ANABASIS THE TEN THOUSANDS MARCH IGICE CYA GATANU

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Nkuko twabibonye mu gice kibanziriza iki aricyo cya kane, aba bacancuro bari batangiye kugarura icyizere kuko bari bari gusatira umujyi wabo kuko yari colony y abagereki. Niba utarasomye ibice byayibanjirije, wakanda kuri iyi link ukaba wabasha gusobanukirwa naho ibintu byahereye https://yegob.rw/anabasis-the-ten-thousands-march-igice-cya-kane/   Iki ni igice cyacyo cya  gatanu igice cya nyuma mu ruhererekane rw ibiganiro byerekeye urugendo n ubuhangange bw abagereki b abacancurobatahaga bava mu gihugu cy umwanzi.

Dukomeje, aari muri Mutarama muri 400 mbere ya Yezu, mu nzira y ibyago n umuruho inzira yarimaze amezi agera muri atanu (5) aho bari basigaye ari ibihumbi umunani (8 000) nibwo bageze ahitwa Deveboynu muri Tepe muri miles 30 mu majyepfo ya Trabzon cyangwa Trapezus mu mpinga z umusozi wa Theches bahagaze ahirengeye nibwo abambere babonye inyanja yirabura bitegeye ku butumburuke bwo hejuru nuko basabwa n ibyishimo ndetse n amarira ababunga mu maso niko gusakuza cyane biyamira cyane bati “Thalassa! Thalassa” bivuga mu cyongereza “The Sea! The Sea!” wagenekereza mu Kinyarwanda bikavuga ngo “Inyanja! Inyanja!”, Trapezus ntiyari umujyi nk indi, yari umwe muri colony z abagereki kandi ikindi yari ifitanye umubano mwiza n Ubugereki. Nk ingabo zari zigaruye morale bajya kuva aha i Trapezus bagiranye amasezerano n abatware baho ndetse baharwana intambara yanyuma n abacolchians b abaperesi niko kuhegukana intsinzi idasubirwaho.

Mu gihe bari bakiri i Trapezus abacancuro b abagereki bohereje generari wabo Cheirisophus kuri Admiral Anaxibius w umunyasparte wari i Byzantium kugira ngo bahabwe amato yo kubasubiza iwabo mu Bugereki. Igihe Generari Cheirisophus yabasangaga Sinope yabazaniye inkuru idasobanutse kuko nta gisubizo kizima yari yahawe na Admiral Anaxibius gusa yari yamubwiye ko bazishyura bakiva muri Euxine intara Trapezus yabarizwagamo. Mu rugendo rwabo aba barakomeje berekeza mu burengerazuba bake batwawe n amato abandi bakomeza n amaguru kugera binjiye Bythinia nyuma y udutero shuma tw abaturage baho bashyigikiwe na Satrap Pharnabazus wa Hellespontine Phrygia, ndetse n ingabo ze zirwanira ku mafarashi zabagabyeho ibitero bikanemezwa ko zabishemo abasaga 500. Nabwo nibwo Anaxibius yagambanye na Satrap Pharnabazus kugira ngo akure abagereki aberekeze muri Byzantium ndetse yemera kuzamwishyura, ibi byateje imirwano yatumye Admiral ahungira mu mujyi wa Acropolis. Nyuma yaho abarwanyi baratashye iyi campaign ituma General Xenophon izina rye ryamamara mu mateka nk umwe mu bagenerari bahambaye babayeho kandi yari umwanditsi waruherekeje nkuzabara inkuru y ubuhangange bw abagereki.

Ibi bikorwa bihambaye byakozwe n izi ngabo byatumye abagiriki babona ko igisirikare cy ubuperesi babonaga banatinyaga ko kitari gikomeye kandi ko bari biteguye bitewe n ubuhanga mu ntambara bari bashoboye kuba bakwigarurira isi yose yariho icyo gihe bakayipfukamisha munsi y ibendera ry Ubugiriki, nibwo mu majyaruguru y Ubugereki hadukaga umubyeyi n umwana we bagatangiza intambara yashyize akadomo ku buhangange bw abaperesi buyobowe imbere na Philippe II na Alexander the great].

Murakoze n ah ubutaha!
Amahoro y Imana abane namwe!!!

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