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INKOMOKO YA RUTEMIKIRERE

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Mu mateka y ikiremwamuntu nka kimwe mu binyabuzima bimaze igihe gito ariko cyabashije kwivumburira ikoranabuhanga ryihariye ryatumye aba icyo aricyo ubu, byamusunikiye kugushaka no kuvumbura ibikorwa by indashyikirwa byabayeho mu mateka ye. Uyu munsi turarebera hamwe amateka n urugendo rw indege yakozwe n umuntu uko rwatangiye Imyaka ibihumbi byinshi irashije (hafi imyaka amagana mbere ya Yezu).

Mu bwami bw abami bw abashinwa buherereye mu burasirazuba buhera (China) ubwami bumaze imyaka ibihumbi bitatu, ahanga mu myaka magana nibwo hadukaga ibisa n igitekerezo cyagejeje ikiremwamuntu ku kuguruka mu kirere nk inyoni. Ikigaragaza ko ari bimwe mu bitekerezo birambye mw isi nuko ubisanga mu bice bitandukanye by isi nko mu Bugereki, mu Buhindi, mu Bushinwa ndetse n ahandi mu Burayi ahagana mu myaka magana ishize. Nkuko bizwi nka Aviation mu cyongereza, bikomoka mu rurimi rw ikilatini bikomoka kuri AVIS (inyoni) ndetse na ICTION bisobanura igikorwa wayahuza bikarema ijambo rivuga ngo igikorwa cy inyoni.

Mu bitekerezo byaranze amateka y iguruka ry abantu ushobora kuba warumvise umubyeyi n umuhungu we bagurutse bakoresheje amababa bikoreye. Daedalus na Icarus abagereki babaye ibyamamare aho basimbutse baturuka ku munara muremure bagerageza kuguruka ariko Icarus aza gupfa ahanutse ubwo se yamubuzaga kuguruka cyane asatira izuba kugira ngo amababa ye adashonga nyamara agatwarwa n umunyenga kugeza aho amababa ye ashongeye. Ahagana muri 880s AD uwitwa Abbas Ibn Firnas yiyambitse ibibabi by inkongoro ku maboko yombi nk amababa nuko asimbuka mu mujyi wa Cordoba muri Esipanye, yabashije kuguruka ariko mu kumanuka ananirwa kubona uburyo kuko umurizo w inyoni ugira akamaro mu kugira ngo ibe yaguruka cyangwa ngo imanuke ihagarare. Firnas yaravunitse ariko yabaye umwe mu bantu batanze ishusho y indege ziguruka magingo aya.

igihangano gifata ishusho bitewe naho kigeze cyubakwa, niko n ibikorwa by indege byagenze ku kugeza kw ishusho tubona ubu. Ahagana muri mu binyejana bibanza bya nyuma ya Yezu, mu Bushinwa hari ibyitwa kites abana benshi babikinishaga aho babikoraga mu mashashi ubundi bakabizirikaho imigozi miremire ubundi ukakareka kakaguruka kure cyane gatwawe n umuyaga.

Ubundi buryo bwari ubwa hot balloons (mbuze inyito mu kinyarwanda) aho bikekwa ko ibi byatangijwe mu Bushinwa mu myaka 2500 ishize aho yakoreshwaga mu birori ndetse no mu gushyingura. Nabwo umuhanga Joseph Needham avuga ko zigeze gukoreshwa mu bikorwa bya gisirikare n umujenerari w umushinwa ahagana muri 180-234 AD witwa Zhuge Liang akanga abasirikare bari bahanganye.

Leonardo da Vinci nawe ntiyatanzwe aho ahagana muri 1505 yakoze ibyo nakwita nk ibishushanyo mbonera by indege cyane cyane iyakoreshejwe muri kajugujugu, ibi yabikoze amaze kwiga uko inyoni n uducurama uko tuguruka imyaka ijana irenga mbere y ubushakashatsi bw umuhanga mu by ubugenge Sir Isaac Newtons wabitangaje ahagana mu 1687.

Abandi bakurikiyeho ni Francesco Lana de Terzi ahagana muri 1670, Bartolomeu de Gusmao mu 1709, Abafaransa b abavandimwe bitwa Montgolfier mu 1783, abavandimwe baba Robert (Robert brothers) ahagana mu 1783 nabo bakaba bari abafaransa, ahagana muri 1863 muri civil war y abanyamerika yifashishijwe n uwitwa Ferdinand von Zepplin wabarizwaga mu mutwe witwaga Union Army Balloon Corps wari warayishyizweho na Thaddeus S. C. Lowe wari wahawe ububasha na Perezida wicyo gihugu.

Mu kinyejana cya cumi n icyenda Sir George Cayley ufatwa nk uwahanze indege kuko yize ubugenge bw ibiguruka anashushanya imashini yarigezweho muri icyo gihe  Sir George niwe wagize uruhare runini mu bya siyanse ku migurukire y indege no kugeza kubizaba biyigize. Abaje kumenyekana ni Wright brothers tariki 17 Ukuboza 1903 Orville Wright yagurutse metero 37 mu masegonda 12 naho umuvandimwe we Wilbur Wright aguruka metero 260 mu masegonda 59 igendera kuri metero 10 ivuye ku butaka, izi nizo ngendo za mbere z indege zabaye ku mugaragaro kuko hari abatangabuhamya b ubwoko butandukanye nk amato 3 y abashinzwe ubutabazi bwo mu mazi, umushoramari wo muri ako gace ndetse n umusore umwe wo muri ako gace ari uko zabaye ingendo za mbere zabaye ku karubanda.

Nyuma yaha hakurikiyeho ubundi buvumbuzi buhambaye ndetse haduka n inganda zikora indenge nka Boeing, Airbus, Pilatus, Embraer, Bombardier, Dassault Falcon n izindi n izindi. Mu 1914 ubwo intambara ya mbere y isi yabagaho, indege zifashishijwe bwa mbere n abongereza bazikoresha mu kuneka nyuma yaho bazishyiraho imbunda zitangira kurwana nazo. Mu gihe cy intambara ya kabiri y isi hubatswe izihambaye zirwana zikanasenya imijyi mu buryo bworoshye dushobora kuzagarukaho mu nkuru zacu z ahazaza ariko noneho intambara irangiye indege ntizari bujugunywe ahubwo barazihinduye bashyiramo aho abantu bicara zihinduka izitwara abantu uko.

Amasiganwa yo guhanga indege z igitangaza yarakomeje ku guhera imiyaka ibihumbi byinshi aho bagurukishaga amababa akozwe mu bibabi by inkongoro kukugeza aho batwara abantu benshi bagera muri magana atanu ndetse n izindi zikorera ibintu.

Ndabashimiye cyane inkuru zacu n akagaruka,

Mugire amahoro n imigisha biva ku Mana!

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