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IMITINGITO 5 IKOMEYE YABAYEHO KW ISI

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Ese waba warumviseho umutingito? waba wibaza uti umutingito n iki? Uyu munsi turavuga imitingito itanu ikomeye yabayeho kw isi kuva abantu babasha kuyifatira ibipimo.

Umutingito n ukwinyeganyeza kw’ isi biturutse mu mbere yayo ahanini bitewe nuko habayeho ukugenda kw ibyitwa tectonic plates cyangwa ibitanda imigabane iryamyeho. Aho wave iturutse hitwa hypocenter (focus) mu gihe aho itungukiye ku murongo urambuye uhagaze (vertically) ku butaka hitwa epicenter. Mu mateka y isi uko umubumbe wacu tuwubona, uteye uk kubera hagiye habaho imitingito ihambaye ku byo ubu twaha izina rya mega-earthquakes zagiye zitera ugutana cyangwa ukwiihuza kw imigabane bigatanga inyanjya nka Antlantic na Pacific aho zitanye naho aho imigabane ihuye cyangwa isekuranye hakavuka uruhererekane rw’ imisozi nka Himalaya

Ukuyemo ibyiyumviro by umuntu kuko n umuntu ubwe agizwe n utunyangingo dushinzwe gupima, umutingito uturutse mu nda y isi ubukana bwawo bupimirwa ku mbaraga ufite ndetse n umwanya wamaze….. nubwo aba ari mu masegonda. Umuntu wa mbere wahibye imashini ipima umutingito yitwa Seismometer n umushinwa witwa Zhang Heng ahagana mu w i (132 AD) mbese mu kinyejana cya kabiri nyuma y ivuka rya Yezu, ariko iziheruka zo mu kinyejana cya 19 zahimbwe nabitwa ba Luigi Palmeiri muri 1855, Filippo Cecchi muri 1875, abandi ni Sir James Alfred Ewing, Thomas Gray, John Milne ahagana mu 1880.

Zhang Heng Seismometer

Richter magnitude y umutingito n igipimo abahanga n abasesenguzi cyangwa abashakashatsi mu by imitingito ndetse n ubumenyi bw’ isi bakoresha berekana ubukana warufite babikesha uko isi yicugusanga aho ibara n umwanya wamaze. Umutingito ushobora kugira epicenter yawo ku butaka cyangwa mu nyanja, iyo ubereye munsi y inyanja hakurikiraho umwuzure.

Ubundi abahanga nubwo bahita batangaza ingano y umutingito nyamara ahenshi byagaragaye ko ishobora guhinduka iva kuri magnitude imwe ikajya kuyindi byaba ari ukuzamuka cyangwa ukumanuka. Imitingito iterwa n ibintu byinshi kuva ku biri karemano nk iruka ry ibirunga, ugutandukana cyangwa ukugenda kw ibitanda by imigabane (tectonic movement), ku kugeza ku bikorwa bya muntu nko guturitsa intambi mu birombe ndetse banubaka inzira zinyura rwagati mu misozi, guturitsa ibisasu kirimbuzi mu igeragezwa ryabyo ndetse n ubundi bushakashatsi bunyuranye bukorwa n abantu.

Ibikurikira ni urupfu rw abantu bari mu gace ka cyangwa se kegereye epicenter bigaherekezwa n’ isenyuka rimwe na rimwe rihambaye umujyi cyangwa agace kose kakangirika ndetse ibikorwa remezo byinshi bikangirika, umwuzure wa metero nyinshi z umutumburuke ubaho iyo focus cyangwa se epicenter y umutingito iri mu nyanja, inkangu cyangwa se gucikamo k ubutaka hakaza kubaho umworera ndetse hamwe na hamwe hakabaho n inkongi. Bene ibyo byose ukuyemo ubuzima bw abantu baba bitabye Imana ibindi byose bivunjwa mu mafaranga. Ku mitingito yabayeho kuva umuntu yamenya gupima nta numwe uragera kuri magnitude ya 10.0 ariko iyi itanu tubabwira uyu munsi yose ihera kuri 9.0 kuzamura bya magnitude y umutingito

 

Turahera kuva ku muto muri yose twerekeza ku mutingito ukomeye wabayeho hamwe na hamwe tubabwira nibyo yagiye yangiza:

5. Kamchatka, Uburusiya, 4 Ugushyingo 1952

Uyu mutingito wa magnitude (9.0) wabereye mu Burusiya wateje umwuzure wa metero 9 z ubutumburuke ahitwa Kaena Point, Oahu ku birometero 5,177 uvuye Epicenter. Mu birwa bya Hawaii muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z Amerika wateje igihombo cya miriyoni imwe y ama dollars y abanyamerika. Umutingito wa magnitude 9.0 umara hagati y iminota 15 na 20, uyu mutingito wishe abantu basaga hagati y ibihumbi icumi na cumi na bitanu (10 000- 15 000)

 

4. Sendai, Ubuyapani, 11 March 2011 

Kuwa gatanu, tariki 11 Werurwe 2011 i saa 14:46 ku masaha yo mu Buyapani umutingito wa magnitude (9.0) wamaze iminota 6, ukaba warangije ibikorwa bingana na miriyari 360 z amadollars y abanyamerika ukanica abantu basaga 15 000. wanatumye hafungwa inganda zikora ingufu za nuclear.

 

3. Sumatra, Indonesia, 26 December 2004

Uyu mutingito wo mu nyanja y abahinde wanateje umwuzure wabaye i saa 07:58:53 mu masaha yaho Indonesia kuwa 26 Ukuboza 2004, aho epicenter yayo yari mu burengerazuba bw amajyaruguru ya Sumatra mbese ibirometero 250 amajyepfo y uburasirazuba bwa Band Aceh aho muri Indonesia. Wari umutingito wo mu nyanja ufite focus yawo cyangwa aho waturutse mu birometero 30 mu nda y isi. Umutingito n umwuzure wawukurikiye byishe abantu babarirwa mu 227 900 ndetse n abandi baburirwa irengero ndetse wangiza n ibintu bingana na miriyari 15 z amadollars y abanyamerika. Sibyo kandi wakuye abantu basaga miriyoni 1.7 mu bihugu 14 byo muri Asiya yepfo ndetse na Afurika y uburasirazuba. Ku itariki ya 28 Ukuboza ikirunga cyegereye Baratang, mu birwa bya Andamar cyararutse nabwo bitewe nuyu mutingito.

 

2. Prince William Sound, Alaska, 28 Werurwe 1964

Ahagana i 5:36 PM mu masaha yo muri Alaska habayeho umutingito wa magnitude (9.2) wamaze iminota 3. Uyu mutingito wateje umwuzure wa metero 67 ahitwa Shoup Bay ho muri Alaska ndetse wahitanye ubuzima bw abantu 131 unangiza ibikorwa bihwanye n akayabo k amadollars y amerika  miriyoni 311 yo muri 1964 uyashyize muyo muri 2020 ni arenga miriyari 2.590 by amadollars y abanyamerika.

 

1. Valdivia, Chile, 22 Gicurasi 1960

Umutingito wa magnitude (9.5) nushaka uwite XII (Extreme) aho wahungabanyije cyane ni Chile na Pacific Rim (ahagaragaza imbibi z igitanda cy inyanja ya Pacific hakunda kurangwa n ibirunga bikiruka), uyu mutingito wishe abantu barenga 5 700 wangiza ibikorwa bibarirwa muri miriyoni 550 z amadollars y amerika. Ikindi nuko ababarirwa muri miriyoni 2 bakuwe mubyabo ndetse n umurambarara wa rupture zone warengaga ibirometero 1000. Nyuma y iminsi ibiri yonyine bibaye, ikirunga cyegereye aho cyitwa Puyehue cyararutse cyohereza imyotsi imikungugu y ibirunga (volcanic ash) mu kirere ku birometero 6 mu gihe cy ibyumweru.

 

Naha dusoreje uyu munsi n akagaruka nah ubutaha!!!

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"Until the lions have their own historians, the history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter." ~African proverb A Universe and history lover

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