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ANABASIS THE TEN THOUSANDS MARCH IGICE CYA MBERE

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“Thalassa! Thalassa!” ni amagambo cyangwa ukwiyamira abantu bakoresha iyo babonye ibibazo byari bibazonze cyangwa se bibazengereje bigana ku ndunduro. Ni ijambo ry ikigereki risobanura inyanja. Muri iyi nkuru yacu turagaruka ku nkomoko yaryo turebera hamwe urugendo rw ingabo ibihumbi cumi (10 000) b abacancuro b’ abagereki, urugendo rwamamaye cyane mw isi babikesha inyandiko za General Xenophon w umunyatene (Athens) mu nyandiko yise “ANABASIS” bisobanura “The March up” cyangwa se “The march upcountry” ahandi bakayita “ANABASIS-Kyron” bisobanura “Up country march of Cyrus ” ibi byose ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda bishaka kuvuga ngo urugendo rwerekeza mu majyaruguru y igihugu. Aba barwanyi bisanze bari mu birometero ibihumbi byinshi kure y iwabo inyuma y imirongo y umwanzi hazwi nka behind enemy lines, bagatangira urugendo rwagaragaje bidasubirwaho ubuhangange bw igisirikare mu Bugereki  bakanataha expedition yamaze imyaka ibiri kuva ahagana 401-399 mbere ya Yezu.

Ubugereki kuva kera igihugu gifatwa nk umubyeyi wa demokarasi mw isi, cyari igihugu kigizwe n ama leta yigenga agahora mu ntambara bapfa ubucuruzi, umusaruro cyangwa imipaka. Aba bari barahanganye imyaka myinshi gusa imijyi yari ikomeye kandi ishyamirana cyane yari Sparta na Athens , ariko iyo umwanzi yaturukaga hanze ibi byo kutumvikana kwabo babishyiraga hasi bakamurwanya bivuye inyuma nk abagereki bigashimangirwa na coalition yiswe the Hellenic League yarwanyije abamedi n abaperesi ubwami bw abami bwari igihangange muri ibyo bihe buyobowe n umwami Xerxes I ahagana muri 480 BC bakahatsindira abamedi n abaperesi.

Abagereki bari abarwanyi kabuhariwe, bamenyereye intambara bitewe nuko ku myaka yabo 13, watandukanaga n umubyeyi ukajyanwa mu ishyamba ryuzuye amasimbi ubundi ugatozwa uburwanyi aho wahanganaga n inyamaswa z inkazi ukazica cyangwa ukahagwa wamara gukura ukaba umuturage usanzwe ugahinga cyangwa ukorora kugeza aho intambara zongeye kubura mu gihugu rwagati, nuko rero mukegura intwaro zanyu ubundi mukajya kurwanira umujyi wanyu. Gusa ibi byakorwaga buri mugereki ari umugabo wigenga, bakagira ababahagarariye nk abadepite cyangwa abasenateri bo muri ibi bihe byacu. Abagereki bari bariremeye igisirikare ntagereranywa nk aba hoplites bari abarwanyi b ababgereki bari ikizwi nka heavy infantry cyangwa abarwanira ku maguru bambaye ingofero z ibyuma zikingira umutwe, ibyuma bikingira agatuza ndetse n ibyuma bikingira amaguru yabo banitwaje amacumu ndetse n ingabo zibakingira, bari igisirikare cyabigize umwuga barwanira muri military formation ya phalanx aho bakoraga imirongo migari ya rectangle aho bashyiraga ingabo zabo imbere zikamera nk umutamenwa utanyeganyega ubundi bakegera abanzi babo babahuranyisha amacumu mu gihe umwanzi we ntahantu abonera ho kubamenesha ikindi cyisumbuyeho bari bihariye muri icyo gihe kandi baranahembwaga.

Abandi bari aba peltast benshi baturukaga muri Thrace na Romania) iri zina bakarikomora kuri Pelte ingabo bakoreshaga. Aba ba peltast baranyarukaga mu rugamba cyangwa mu ntambara kuko bo batambaraga ibyuma bibakingira ahubwo bitwazaga amacumu menshi afite uburebure bwa metero imwe.

Abandi nkuko ubugereki bwari igihugu gikora ku Nyanja, ntakabuza bari bazi gukoresha amazi nk uburyo bwo gukora intambara, ntiwibeshye na gato, abagereki bari bariremeye amato y igitangaza bari barayise Trireme. Triremis ijambo ry ikilatini risobanura “three-rower” ugenekeranyije mu Kinyarwanda bishaka kuvuga imirongo 3 y abagashyi.Ubu bwato ntibwakoreshwaga ahanini ari ubwo gutwara abarwanyi ahubwo bwonyine ubwabwo bwari intwaro ntagereranywa abagereki bari barivumburiye, bwatwarwaga n abantu hagati ya 30 na 170 bukaba bwaratwaraga  n abarwanyi b abahoplites 10 ndetse n abarashisha imiheto 4 ariko nyuma baraje kwongerwa nyuma y imyaka n indi. Mu kanya nkako guhumbya ubu bwato bwahuranyaga ubw abanzi babo bunyerera ku mazi ku muvuduko wa knots 9~10 cyangwa se bunyerera ku muvuduko wa metero 5 mu isegonda (5m/s) bikabigira ubwato bw indahangarwa aho bwabaga bufite umutwe ukozwe mu muringa cyangwa icyuma ukozwe mu nyamaswa nk ihene cyangwa izindi ku buryo yo byasekuraga ubundi bwato bwasandaraga aha yari mu binyejana bya 7~4 mbere ya Yezu. Aya mato yamamaye cyane cyane mu ntambara yashyamiranyaga abagereki n ubwami bw abami bw abamedi n abaperesi mu rugamba rwa Salamis hagati y amato ya Hellenic League n Armada y abaperesi ahagana muri 480 BC ku ngoma y umwami Xerxes I.

Ibi byose byatangiye harangira intambara yari ishyamiranyije coalitions ebyiri z abagereki zari zigizwe na Delian League iyobowe na Athens ariko ikagira indi mijyi ibarirwa hagati y i 150 na 330 irimo iyitwa nka Cimon/Kimon, Karystos yo muri Euboea, Skyros, Naxos,Thasos, n indi myinshi. Kurundi ruhande hari coalition yari iyobowe na Sparta yitwaga Peloponnesian League igizwe n imijyi nka Korinto (Corinth), Kythir, Melos, Pylos, Mantinea, Elis n indi myinshi. Iyi ntambara yabayeho kuva kera ariko iyi yo yari yarahereye muri 470s BC nyuma yuko Sparta yiyomoye kuri colition yahuzaga izi Leagues zombi bigakurura umwuka mubi. Iteka intambara zigira impamvu zazo kandi noneho zimwe zumvikana izindi zitumvikana ariko uyu munsi sibi tugarukaho. Iyi ntambara yari iciyemo ibice bitatu icya gatatu ari nacyo cyasize Athens ipfukamishijwe bidasubirwaho hafi gusenywa burundu igatwikwa abaturage bayo bakagirwa abacakara nkuko Corinth yabisabaga nk uburyo bwo guhana abanyathens bari barabaruhije cyane mu ntambara. Nyamara iki gitekerezo Sparta yaracyanze ibona ko bidakwiriye ko umugereki acuruzwa nk umucakara. Aha hagaragaramo ubugambanyi n ubufatanye no gutera inkunga k ubwami bw abami bw abamedi n abaperesi, nibwo intambara igice cyayo cya gatatu (431 – 404 BC) yarangiraga nuko abagereki batangira gucuruza ubunararibonye n ubuhanga mu ntambara mu bihugu bituranye yewe ndetse no mu Buperesi bakishyurwa barwanira uwabahamagaje amafaranga menshi yicyo gihe ndetse bagahembwa ku kwezi, aha yari mu kinyejana cya gatanu mbere ya Yezu….

Aha niho ducumbikiye igice cya mbere kuri iyi nkuru, igice cya kabiri mukazakigezwaho ku wa mbere nkuko izi nkuru zisohoka buri kuwa mbere.

Amahoro y Imana abane namwe!!

 

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