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ANABASIS THE TEN THOUSANDS MARCH IGICE CYA KANE

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Tudatinze mu magambo, ubu tugeze mu gice cya kane cy uruhererekane rw amateka y urugendo rw abacancuro ibihumbi 10 bisanze mu gihugu kigari cy ubwami bw abami bw Ubuperesi ubwami butabashakaga gusa bakaza kuhikura bya kigabo bibasabye ukwishyira hamwe ndetse n ubushishozi buhambaye. Aha niho haturutse imvugo yamamaye ya kigereki igira iti: “Thalassa Thalassa” bisobanura inyanja. Niba utarasomye igice kibanziriza iki wakanda kuri iyi link ubundi ugasoma kugira ngo unabashe kumenya aho ibi bintu byari byarahereye….  https://yegob.rw/anabasis-the-ten-thousands-march-igice-cya-gatatu/

Dukomereje aho twari tugeze nakubwira ko Tissaphernes we yabigize ibye kubahiga bukware ngo abice, uyu Satrap yari yaragaragaye muri internal politics affairs z abagereki mu ntambara ya Peloponnesia aho yashyigikiraga Sparte n aba allies babo nyuma yaho agashaka guhindura uruhande agashyigikira Athens nubwo byaje kumunanira, aha noneho bitewe no gutinya kuba yarwana byeruye n aba bahoplites, n abapeltasts b abagereki yahisemo gukoresha amayeri, amayeri ye yari ateye atya yagombaga kubaha inzira bagasezerana ko bazabaha ibyo kurya no kunywa ariko ntibahohotere abantu be, ibi barabyemeye bakora ibisa n amasezerano ariko aha nuko byari byagaragaye ko abaperesi batashakaga abagereki yewe banabagabaho udutero shuma, nyuma yaho Satrap yaje gukoresha ibirori ndetse anatumiramo abagaba b ingabo z abagereki b abacancuro nk ikimenyetso cy amahoro, mu mpaka aba bagaba bamazemo umunsi wose bavuga ko batagomba kugenda nyamara generari Clearchus wari umugaba wabo mukuru agashaka kugenda kugira ngo ashyikirane nawe maze babone uko basubira iwabo, nk umuyobozi byari ihurizo ariko nanone ntibari baribagiwe ubugambanyi bwa Satrap Tissaphernes. Impaka zarangiye bimeje ko berekezayo kuko generari Clearchus yabarushaga igitinyiro n ijambo.

Abagiyeyo bari abagenerari 5 n aba captains 20 n abandi basirikare 200, abagenerari bagiye bari generari Clearchus, generari Proxenus, generari Menon, generari Agias na generari Socrates. Bakigerayo basanze ari ubugambanyi nuko bahita batabwa muri yombi bashyikirizwa umwami Artaxerxes II nuko bahita babica uretse generari Menon wabanje gukorera iyicarubozo akaza kwicwa nyuma y umwaka. Nyamara ibi ntibyabaye bukeye bwaho ahubwo hari hashize igihe urugamba rwa Canaxa rubaye.

Satrap watinyaga abagereki yari yabasezeranyije kubaha inzira mu ntara ye akabaherekeza kugeza muri Ionia ikaba yari intara ya Aziya y abagereki. Bageze hafi n uruzi rwa Tigris bakambika hafi nahitwa Sittace, ariko bari bakurikiwe n abaperesi bashaka kubarimburira rimwe niko guhita berekeza miles 60 mu majyaruguru hafi n umujyi witwa Opis. Uyu mujyi warurinzwe n umuvandimwe badahuje nyina ubabyara w umwami Artaxerxes II, kuko yari afite ingabo nyinshi aha abagereki bakoze imirongo y urugamba ya phalanx barayagura cyane kuburyo umuvandimwe wa Artaxerxes II yaketse ko ari ingabo nyinshi zibateye ahitamo kubaha inzira areka kurwana nabo.

Hashize iminsi ine bageze mu marembo ya Caenae abaturage baho babakiriye neza, baranabagaburira. Nyuma yaha niho bwa bugambanyi nababwiye haruguru bwabaye, Satrap Tissaphernes abatumije nyuma ahita anabicisha mu maso y umwami. Nicharus umwe mu basirikare wari waherekeje abagenerari 5 yagarutse atwaye amara ye mu ntoki nyuma yuko inkota yamwahuranyije mu nda nuko abarira benewabo ibyababayeho nuko bose bariheba barumirwa kuko nyuma yuko bishe abatware b ingabo zabo ntakabuza bari bashiriye bose rimwe. Tissaphernes nuku yabitekerezaga, nitwica abatware b ingabo b abacancuro b abagereki turaba tubaciye umutwe ubundi tubahurane tubarimbure ikibazo cyabo tube tugishyizeho akadomo, nibyo koko yatekerezaga neza niko abaperesi byari kugenda nako niko byari byagenze igihe igikomangoma Cyrus cyicwaga bose baratatanye impamvu y intambara irahagarara. Aba baperesi barwanaga barwana mu izina ry umuntu ariko abagereki bo barwaniraga amagara yabo. Aba bagaba bingabo bamaze kwicwa, Xenophon icyo gihe wari umwanditsi w umunyamateka n inshuti bihambaye ya generari Proxenus wari wishwe yararose, inzozi ze azirotoreye abasirikare bakuru bari hamwe nawe niko kumusaba ko yazirotorera n ibindi bihumbi byinshi byari hamwe nabo. Yababwiraga ko batagomba gucika intege no gucikamo ibice ahubwo ko bagomba guhuriza hamwe bagasohoza umugambi w abatware babo bari bishwe wo gusubiza iwabo aba barwanyi bari bahambaye mu isi yo mu gihe cyabo.

Nibwo bahisemo gutora abandi basirikare bakajya mu myanya y abari bishwe ubundi bagakomeza urugendo rwabasubizaga iwabo. Aha Satrap yari amaze kwibeshya anakozwe n isoni kuko umugambi we wari upfubye gusa ntiyarekeye aho, Aha mu gushyiraho abandi bayobozi Xenophon niko yaje kwisanga ari mu ba “Strategoi ijambo ry ikigereki” bisobanura mu cyongereza “Army Leader” wagenekereza mu Kinyarwanda bikavuga “Abatware b Ingabo”. Aha Xenophon yarabaye generari umwanya Atari yarigeze anatekereza, ari nabyo byamubereye ihurizo rikomeye cyane. Abandi basirikare batowe bari Timasion, Xanthicles, Cleanor na Philesius nuko General Commander agirwa Cheirisophus wo muri Sparte. Generari Xenophon ari gutanga imbwirwaruhame ye nibwo yavugaga ijambo ry ikigereki “Soterias” bisobanura ugucungurwa nako kanya ari kubivuga umuntu umwe aba aritsamuye, ibyo ntibyari ibintu bidafite ubusobanuro mu bagereki, ibi byari ikimenyetso cyuko imana iruta izindi Zeus yari ibihamije kandi ibyumvise. Niko guhita bigabanya imitwe y ingabo, aha mu gisirikare cy ubu n icya kera habaho abasirikare ba Avant-guarde (Vanguards) na Arrier-garde (Rearguards) bamwe bagashingwa gutata imbere cyangwa gushakira inzira ingabo ibihumbi byinshi ziri bunyure mu gihe abandi baba barinda ingabo nyinshi umwanzi wabaturuka inyuma byanaba ngombwa bakamurwanya bamutinza kugira ngo igisirikare kibone uko cyambuka cyangwa gihunga bakava aho bari bagotewe aba bombi baba bazi baniteguye gupfa isaha n isaha ku kigero kiri hejuru kurusha abandi basirikare. Generari Cheirisophus w umunyasparte yashinzwe vanguards mu gihe generari Xenophon yashinzwe rearguards.

Muthradates mwibuke uyu niwe wishe igikomangoma Cyrus aha yari yaragororewe n umwami amugira Commander niko kugaba igitero kuba cancuro b abagereki yitwaje abarwanira ku mafarashi 200 n abarwanisha imiheto 400 ntakindi yishingikirije uretse ko ngo abagereki bananiwe. Abagereki baramurwanyije ndetse bituma nabo biremera abarwanisha amafarashi bagera muri 50 kugira ngo bajye bahangana n ababateye nuko Lygius akurira cavalry y abagereki. Bagenda berekeza mu mujyi umwanditsi Xenophon yise Mespila gusa ntibari bazi ko ari ibisigazwa by umurwa mukuru w ubwami bw abami bwa Ashuru (Assyria) witwa Ninive, nibwo bageze mu nzira ifunganye bahitamo kuzajya barema companies 6 aho buri company yarifite abasirikare 100 nuko noneho eshatu imbere n izindi eshatu inyuma kugeza aho inzira yongeye kuba ngari bagasubira mu mirongo yabo ya mbere, ibi byakozwe nk uburyo bwo kwirinda nk igihe baba baguwe gitumo n abanzi babo b abaperesi kubasha kwirwanaho badashiriye kw icumu. Abacancuro barakomeje urugendo rwabo bagera muri miles 200 n umupaka waba Cardachians na Armenia ku mugezi wa Centrites mu burasirazuba bw uruzi Tigirs nibwo ingabo za Satrap Orontas zoherejwe ngo zibakumire zigizwe n abanyarmeniya, abamidiyani, abakaludaya ziyobowe n uwitwa Tiribazuz nuko n inyuma y ingabo z abagereki haturuka abanyacarduchian barabagota ntahantu na hamwe ho kujya bari bafite. Nibwo abagereki bigiriye inama…. inama imwe ihambaye niko kubaga amatungo bari bafite intama, inka, ingamiya, ihene impu zabyo bazuzuza umucanga ngo zitanyerere nuko bazambukiraho umugezi bakira batyo.

Mu mpera z Ugushyingo bateye inyubako y umutware gusa ntibayiraramo ahubwo berekeza mu cyaro cyari hafi aho bararya baranywa gusa ntibatinda kuko Tiribazuz yabagenzaga ngo abice ntiyari kure yabo kuko babonaga urumuri rwaho ingabo ze zikambitse niko gukomeza urugendo gusa ntibari borohewe kuko yari mu gihe cy ubutita ntanibyo kwifubika bari bafite…. Birumvikana hari abo ubutita bwishe kuko ubutaka bwari butwikiriwe n amasimbi. Hari nkaho ingabo zageze hari amashyuza nuko zanga gukomeza kandi umwanzi ari mu mboni zabo nuko babwira generari Xenophon bati tureke turagwa aha ho gukomeza. Urugendo rwarakomeje, nuko baza kugera mu byaro by abanyarumeniya babakirana ubwuzu barabagaburira nuko babaha naho kuba. Bava aho berekeza mu gihugu cy abataochians nuko abaturage baho babakirana ubugwaneza nkuko babigiriraga abahanyuraga bose, nyuma yaho binjira witwaga Gymnias umutware wabo ababera imfura nuko anabaha uwari kubayobora urugendo rwari rukurikiye. Indwanyi z abahoplites n abapeltasts bakimenya ko kuva Gymnias ukagera ku Nyanja yirabura ko ari urugendo rw iminsi itanu, baranezerewe barishima kuko inzira iruhije yari igeze ku ndunduro yarimo irangira.

Nshuti, reka duhinire aha iby inkuru yacu tuzakomeza ubutaha ari nako dushyira akadomo kuri uru ruhererekane rw amateka ahambaye amateka abagereki biyandikiye ari nayo yabaye intandaro yo kwigarurira isi yarizwi icyo gihe bikozwe n umwana muto, umwe wabaye umwe mu bagenerari bahambaye isi yagize mu mateka yabo.

Ndabashimiye mugire amahoro y Imana!!!!

 

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"Until the lions have their own historians, the history of the hunt will always glorify the hunter." ~African proverb A Universe and history lover

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