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Amafoto y’umugabo wa mbere ufite ubugabo burebure ku isi akomeje kuvugisha benshi

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Yitwa Roberto Esquivel Cabrera akaba ari Umunya-Mexique w’imyaka 57 y’amavuko. Uyu mugabo uherutse kwanga ibyo kugabanyishaubugabo bwe kubera ko ashaka kwandikwa mu gitabo cy’ababa bafite uduhigo twihariye (Guinness de record) akomeje gutangarirwa na benshi kubera amafoto agaragaza ingano y’ubugabo bwe akomeje gusakara ku mbuga nkoranyambaga.

Roberto Esquivel Cabrera niwe mugabo ufite igitsina kinini kuri iyi si ya rurema. ubugabo bwe bureshya na Sentimetero 48 (hafi kimwe cya kabiri cya metero), ku buryo iyo ahagaze bukora ku mavi. Uyu mugabo agereranywa n’undi munyamerika witwa Jonah Falcon uzwi nk’umukinnyi wa filim we ufite ubugabo bureshya na santimetero 34.

Amwe mu mafoto ya Roberto Esquivel Cabrera, umugabo wa 1 ufite ubugabo burebure ku isi

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Amateka

URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA KABIRI)

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Nkuko twari twabigarutseho mu gice cya mbere cy inkuru yacu ku rugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu, uyu munsi turakomerezaho tureba ese ni iyihe yabaye intandaro y ukuneshwa n ikimwaro abafaransa bakuye muri Vietnam? Niba utarasomye igice cya mbere kanda iyi link abe ariho uhera kugira ngo ubyumve neza https://yegob.rw/urugamba-rwa-dien-bien-phu-igice-cya-mbere/

Nkuko mu bindi bihugu byari byarakoronijwe abantu babyo bajyanywe n abakoroni mu ntambara niko kubona ko nabo bagamburuzwa yewe ndetse bagatabwa muri yombi niko kugaruka bashaka ubwigenge ariko hamwe na hamwe babaga barabijeje ubwigenge nibaramuka babahaye abarwanyi. Abaturage ba Vietnam nyuma yuko abayapani babigaruriye mu gihe cy intambara ya kabiri y isi yose nubwo yariho irangira ninabwo abayapani bamanikaga amaboko bamaze kubaturaho ibisasu kirimbuzi bya bombe atomique muri Hiroshima na Nagasaki mu 1945 bavuye muri Indochina bayisigira aba viet minh banabohoza Hanoi niko guhita bavuga ko Vietnam yigenze, Aba Việt Minh yari national independence coalition yashingiwe ahitwa Pác Bó ishinzwe na Hồ Chí Minh tariki 19 Gicurasi, 1941. Việt Nam Độc Lập Đồng Minh Hội bari barashingiwe muri Nanjing, mu Bushinwa, hagati y ukwa munani 1935 no mu ntangiriro ya za 1936 ubwo amashyaka Vietnamese nationalist yishyiraga hamwe ngo arwanye ba gashakabuhake babaga barayogoje igihugu cyabo. Nyamara aba barazimye ntihagira icyo bakora ku bibazo byabo , yongeye kuzanirwa imbaraga n ishyaka ry abakomunisti yitwaga dochinese Communist Party (ICP) na Hồ Chí Minh mu 1941. Abaviệt Minh nibo bonyine basigaye barigize abarwanya abakoroni b abafaransa ndetse no kwigarurira Indochina bayambura abayapani.

Abaviet Mihn (Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi) aho mu cyongereza bishaka kuvuga League for the Independence of Vietnam bayobowe na Ho Chi Minh mu rwego rwa politiki naho mu rwego rwa gisirikare bayobowe na generari Vo Nguyen Giap bacengeye muri Vietnam mu mpera za 1943 n abaviet minh be niko guhangana n abayapani yigumura kuri occupation yabo, aha hari mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi niko guhita atangira intambara ya guerrilla. Ubwo bari muri iyo ntambara nibwo bigaruriraga ibice binini by amajyaruguru ya Vietnam nyuma nabwo babohoza Hanoi niko guhita bashing leta yigenga bayita Independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Ibi ntibyarangiriye aho, abafaransa ntibari biteguye gutankaza inyungu bari bafite mu bice bya Indochina niko guhita bagaruka nk abakoroni birengagiza ndetse ntibakwemera ubutegetsi bushya bwari bugiyeho. Bidatinze abavietminh nabo ntibari biteguye gusubira munsi y ibendera ry abafaransa niko kurahira ko kugeza ku wanyuma wabo bazarwana mpaka umufaransa wanyuma avuye muri Vietnam cyangwa abanyavietnam bose bagashirira ku nkota bose bagapfa. .

Nibwo intambara yubuye hagati y abaviet mihn bayobowe na Ho Chi Min ndetse na generari Vo Nguyen Giap ndetse n abafaransa bayobowe n abagenerari benshi kuko basimburanywe muri Vietnam ari nako bashyikirizwa inkiko za gisirikare basobanura impamvu n icyabateye gutsindwa intambara. Iyi ntambara yiswe the first Indochina war, yatangiye tariki 19 Ukuboza 1946 irangira 1 Kanama 1954 irangirana intsinzi y abavietminh. Mbere yuko twinjira mu ntambara reka hagire amagambo amwe mumenya kuko tuzajya tuyabona kenshi ndetse tunayababwira icyo ashaka kuvuga.mu magambo yoroheje, harimo nka Garrison, Division, Battalion, Legionnaire, nandi nandi menshi.

 

Garrison bisobanura itsinda ry abasirikare baba bakambitse mu mutamenwa cyangwa mu mujyi kugira ngo bawurinde bikomeye ngo umwanzi atinjiramo. Infantry yo n i igisirikare kirwanira ku butaka ndetse banagendesha amaguru. Corps ni igice cy ingabo nyinshi aho iba igizwe na Divisions ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi cyane aho iba igizwe hagati y abasirikare 50 000 n 100 000 ikayoborwa n Lieutenant Generari. Division mu gisirikare ni unit ya gisirikare iba igizwe n abasirikare 10 000- 25 000, aha ahenshi iba igizwe na Regiments nyinshi cyangwa Brigades nyinshi ikayoborwa na General Officer Commanding aho i rank rye aba ari Major General. Brigade ni igice cya Division cyangwa se Subdivision y igisirikare aho iba igizwe n umubare muto wa infantry Battalions, regiments, squadrons ndetse nizindi units bigize Division, iyi ikaba iyoborwa na Brigadier General cyangwa se Senior Colonel igizwe n abasirikare basaga gato hagati y 3000- 5 000. Legionnaire ni umutwe w ingabo z abafaransa washinzwe mu 1831, aba aba ni infantry iba yarahawe imyitozo ihambaye ikaba ikorera hanze y igihugu cy ubufaransa ndetse n abanyamahanga bashobora kwinjizwamo.

Reka tube ducumbikiye aha tuzakomeza icyumweru gitaha!
Mugire amahoro!!!

 

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Amateka

Boeing B-17 FLYING FORTRESS

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Boeing B-17 mu kabyiniriro kayo “Flying Fortress” mu Kinyarwanda bisobanura inzu y umutamenwa iguruka. Impamvu nuko yari bombardier ariko ikirenzeho ikaba yarabashaga kwirindira umutekano aho yari ifite imbunda zigera muri 13 za 12.7 mm machine guns zivuye kuri 5 ubwo yatangiraga gukorwa. Ikindi nuko iyi yarasiraga mu ntera yo hejuru kure cyane ndetse inanyaruka ku muvuduko wari ntagereranywa ikindi kandi inakomeye kuko yabashaga gusubira ku bibuga by indege yahagurukiyeho yarashweho bikomeye cyane n umwanzi abayigize batahungabanyijwe cyane n amasau yabo bahanganye.

Boeing B 17 yagize ibikorwa bikomeye uhereye kuri version yayo ya mbere kugeza kuya nyuma. Gusa iyi ni indege yamamaye mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi (WW II) ubwo yakoreshwaga iyogoza amato, indege ndetse n inganda z abanzi bari bahanganye n ibihugu byishize hamwe ngo birwanye abanazi n abayapani. Mu matoni y amabombe yarashwe ndetse yasutswe n indege z abanyamerika mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi ku butaka bw abanazi n ubwo bagenzuraga muri toni miriyoni 1.5 zasutswe n indege, B 17 niyo yasutse ibisasu byinshi aho ibarirwa mu matoni bihumbi 640 by amabombe yituye ku butaka bw abanazi mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi. Iyi ndege yakozwe n abanyamerika ahagana mu mwaka w I 1935 ariko itangira kuguruka 1938 nuko ihagarikwa mu gukoreshwa bwanyuma mu mwaka w i 1968 mu gisirikare cya Brazil kirwanira mu kirere.

Mu 1934 tariki 8 z ukwa munani United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) yashyize kw isoko ipiganwa ku kubaka indege z intambara zagombaga kuba zifite engines/ moteri nyinshi zagombaga gusimbura izitwaga Martin B-10. Izi  bazishakaga ngo zijye gutanga umusaada ku barwanira mu kirere mu birwa bya Hawaii, Panama ndetse na Alaska. Ibisabwa byari ukuba yatwara imizigo y amabombe iremereye cyane ku butumburuke bwa metero 3 000 mu gihe cy amasaha 10 igendera ku muvuduko wa 200 mph cyangwa se 320km/h.Ikindi USAAC yifuzaga nubwo bitari mu bisabwa byari ukuba iyi ndege yagenda ibirometero 3 200 ku muvuduko w ibirometero 400 ku isaha (400 km/h). Aha Boeing yagiye mu ipiganwa ihanganye na Douglas yari yazanye type yayo ya Douglas DB-1 ndetse na Martin Model 146 ku kibuga cy indege cya Wilbur Wright muri Dayton, Ohio muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Boeing B 17 Model 299 yabo yari yakozwe n abenjenyeri bayobowe na E. Gifford  Emery na Edward Curtis Wells ifite imbunda 5 za 30 caliber (7.62mm) machine guns ishobora kwikorera toni 2.2 by ibisasu iyi ndege yari itwawe na moteri 4 za Pratt & Whitney R-1690 buri imwe ikora 750hp (600 Kw) ku butumburuke bwa metero 2 100.

Tariki 27 Nyakanga 1935 umunyamakuru Richard Williams w ikinyamakuru Seattle Times nyuma yo kubona izo mbunda B 17 Model 299 niwe wavuze ati iyi ni 15 ton flying fortress niko guhimbwa “Flying Fortress”. Bwa mbere yagurutse tariki 28 Nyakanga 1935 itwawe n umukuru w aba pilote bakora amatests muri Boeing witwaga Leslie Tower. Tariki 20 Kanama 1935 nibwo iyi prototype ya B 17 yahagurutse iva ku kibuga cy indege cya Seattle yerekeza ku cya Wright Field mu masaha 9 n iminota 3 aha ni mu ntera y ibirometero 3 800 aho yagenderaga ku muvuduko wa 406 km/h aho yasumbaga umuvuduko wari watswe mu marushanwa y isoko isumba kure mu bubasha iza DB-1 ndetse na Model 146. Gusa tariki 30 Ukwakira 1935 nibwo Major Ployer Peter Hill wo muri USAAC ndetse na Les Tower bagurutsaga Model 299 bwa kabiri muri test yayo ya kabiri gusa bakibagirwa gukuramo icyitwa “gust locks” ibi byatumye indege ibura control iri mu kirere niko gukora impanuka ibica bombi. Iyi mpanuka niyo yatumye Boeing idatsindira iri soko niko kuriha Douglas kuri 58 200$ yicyo gihe ubu ahwanye na miriyoni 1.09 $ y ubu. Mu gihe Boeing yagombaga kubona $99 620 bihwanye na miriyoni 1.86 y amadollars yubu gusa ibi ntibyayibujije kuza kugurwa nyuma ubwo Ubwongereza na Amerika byinjiraga mu ntambara ya kabiri yose. Ahabanza zagiye zigira ibibazo byinshi kugeza zigeze aho ziba agatangaza niko kuyogoza burayi bwari bwarigaruriwe n abanazi no gusuka amatoni y ibisasu mu mbere mu Budage bwa Hitler ubundi arashoberwa karahava zisenya bidasubirwaho inganda n imijyi bye. Izi zarekeye gukorwa mu mwaka 1945 nyuma yuko bamaze gukora izigera mu 12 731 zikaba zarakorerwaga muri Boeing Plant 2 yabaga Seattle, Washington (BO) ndetse na California. Buri imwe yabaga yagurwa amafaranga angana na $ 238,329 (1945) ariyo miriyoni 2.7$ mu yo mu 2018.

Ngibi bimwe mu biranga B 17 mu bipimo byayo:

  • Crew (10): Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer/top turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
  • Uburebure: 66 m
  • Uburebure bw ibaba: 62 m
  • Uburebure: 82 m
  • Ubuso bw ibaba: 92 m2
  • Ibiro byayo idahetse: 16,391 kg
  • Ibiro byayo ihetse: 24,500 kg
  • Ibiro byinshi byanyuma yahagurukana: 29,700 kg
  • Imbaraga za moteri: 4 × Wright R-1820-97 “Cyclone” turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) kuri buri imwe
  • Ibipanga bya moteri: 3-bladed Hamilton-Standard constant-speed propeller

  • IMIKORERE
  • Maximum speed:462 km/h, 249 kn
  • Cruise speed: 293 km/h, 158 kn
  • Range: 3,219 km hamwe na 2,700 kg byaza bombload
  • Service ceiling: 10,850 m
  • Rate of climb:6 m/s
  • Wing loading:7 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 150 W/kg

Armament

  • Imbunda:13 × .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns
  • Bombs:
    • Short range missions (<400 mi): 3,600 kg
    • Long range missions (≈800 mi): 2,000 kg
    • Overload: 7,800 kg

 

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Amateka

URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA MBERE)

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Mortiers, mitrailleuses, urufaya rw amabombe byatwituragaho ubutitsa uko bukeye nuko bwije, yari mw ijoro ariko twabashaga kubona aba vietm Minh bamanuka imisozi ndetse abashinzwe kurashisha ibibunda biremereye bamisha amasasu yabo ku birindiro by abafaransa bari bakambitse aha muri Dien Bien Phu mu ntera ya km 16 z uburebure ndetse n umunani (8) z ubugari aha hari hahuriye abasirikare ibihumbi 94 (94 000) aho abavietmihn bari ibihumbi 80 (80 000) naho abafaransa bari ibihumbi 14 (14 000). Uru rwari urugamba rukomeye rwari rubayeho nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi. Aha amategeko y intambara abavietminh ntibayumvaga nyuma y intsinzi iruhanyije bari bagize niko gufata bunyago abasirikare ibihumbi 12 (12 000) b abafaransa bakabica babatoteje harokotse mbarwa hataha abasaga gato ibihumbi 3 (3 000) gusa buzuye intimba, ubwoba n ikimwaro bari bakuye muri Vietnam aha hari mu 1954. Aha abafaransa bishwe barashwe bari basaga gato ibihumbi 8 (8 000) nabwo babakuyemo inzara n amenyo nyuma yo gufungirwa mu mazi mu gihe kitari gito.

Intambara nka kimwe mu bikorwa byaranzwe ndetse bwamenyerewe mu mibereho y ikiremwamuntu zagiye zihindura imiterere y ubutegetsi ndetse n imibereho y abantu mu gace kamwe cyangwa akandi mw isi ndetse no mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Dien Bien Phu aha ni hamwe mu hapfukamishije abafaransa mu mateka y intambara mu bihe bya vuba ndetse nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi kuko aha naho bapfukamishijwe bikomeye n igisirikare cy abanazi ba Hitler Wehrmacht kigizwe na Heer yo ku butaka, Kriegsmarine bo mu mazi ndetse na Luftwaffe yarwaniraga mu kirere. Intambara yo muri Vietnam yiswe the First Indochina war aho yamaze imyaka isaga 8 yashyizweho akadomo n intsinzi y abarwanyi b abavietmihn bamaze guha isomo rya gisirikare abafaransa bari abakoroni bagataha bimyiza imoso ari bo barwanye intambara ndetse n abanyamerika babateraga inkunga y amafaranga aho batanze isaga miriyoni 300 z amadollars. Ibi byose byigisha ko abagenerari b ibihugu bikomeye mu bya gisirikare bakunda gusuzugura abo bahanganye nabo bibwira ko nta bushobozi mu gukora intambara bafite cyangwa se bashoboye ibi bikaganisha ku kurimburira rimwe ingabo zabo bayoboye no guhindura igice cyaho intsinzi ya gisirikare igana. Mbere yuko tuvuga ku mutwe w inkuru yacu y uyu munsi, reka turebere hamwe inkomoko ndetse n intandaro by uru rugamba duhereye atari kure cyane mu mizi kugira ngo tugire ishusho y imvano y iyi ntambara.

Ibi byose byatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19 ubwo ibihugu byo mu Burayi byiyita “Old Continent” byajyaga mu masiganwa yo kwigwizaho ibihugu byo gukoroniza ngo babone aho bakura ibikoresho nkenerwa basubiza mu bihugu byabo ngo bahaze inganda zabo zari zicyaduka, nibwo abafaransa nabo batangiraga ukwisuka muri Indochine agace kari muri Aziya ahagana muri 1859 ndetse mu 1885 bari baramaze kwigarurira ibice binini byaho. Indochina y abafaransa yashinzwe ku itariki 17 Ukwakira 1887 aho bahurizaga hamwe Vietnam (yarigizwe na Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina), ubwami bwa Cambodia, na Laos  iyi yongereweho nyuma y intambara Franco-Siamese War mu mwaka w i 1893 bakabigira colonies zabo. Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rwaje nk iherezo ry ubukoroni bw abafaransa muri Indochina, ariko ntibahavuye mu mahoro byasabye kunyura mu ntambara intambara itaroroshye cyangwa ngo yihute kuko yararambye imara imyaka umunani (8) yose ishyamiranyije abavietminh ndetse n abafaransa bari banafite mu ngabo zabo abalaos, abanyamaroc, abanyarijeriya, abanyacambodia ndetse n abatais. Nyamara intambara iza nk igisubizo cya nyuma cya nyuma kuko izindi nzira z ibiganiro mbese zose zose zananiwe impande ebyiri zishyamiranye zitumvikana cyangwa zitabyumva kimwe.

Nshuti reka igice cya mbere tugihinire aha, ntuzacikwe n ibindi bice aho tuzavuga byimbitse kuri uru rugamba ndetse n intandaro zayo tutibagiwe n ingaruka zayiturutseho.
Murakoze murakarama!!!!

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ANABASIS THE TEN THOUSANDS MARCH IGICE CYA GATATU

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Kwishora mu ntambara haba hari inyungu utezemo, hari ababa barwanira uburenganzira bwabo baba barambuwe ariko hakabaho n abandi bashinga intambara bitewe n inyungu zabo bwite. Mu mateka y isi hari abarwana n barwanira umutegetsi wabo abandi bagashinga inkambi nini z ingabo bagamije inyungu z amafaranga bitewe n ubunararibonye mu ntambara, aha ni urugendo rw abagereki 10 000 b abacancuro bari bisanze mu butaka bugari bw abanzi babo abatware babo bishwe ari nabyo byahaye imbaraga zo kwihitiramo ababasimbura bagakomeza urugendo rwabasubizaga iwabo. Iyi ni Anabasis the ten thousands march igice cya gatatu niba utarasoma ibice bibibanziriza nagusaba kubanza kubisoma kugira ngo ubashe kubyumva neza. Sura iyi link kugira ngo ngo ubone igice cya kabiri https://yegob.rw/anabasis-the-ten-thousands-march-igice-cya-kabiri/

Igikomangoma Cyrus yahagurutse i Sardis yerekeza rwagati muri Mezopotamiya aherekejwe n abacancuro b abahoplites 10 700, 2 500 by abagereki b abapeltasts b abacancuro, 2 600 barwanira ku mafarashi, n abarwanyi b abaperesi basaga 20 000. Ubu nibwo Umwami Artaxerxes II yabonye ko igikomangoma Cyrus cyari gitangije intambara ya gisivire mu bwami ashaka kumukura ku ngoma, niko guhita ahagurutsa ingabo zisaga ibihumbi mirongo ine (40 000) ziyobowe n abagaba b ingabo be bane aribo Satrap Tissaphernes wategekaga Sardes aza kugirwa commander in chief w Aziya ntoya yose akuriye ingabo zose z Aegean, uwa kabiri yari Satrap Gobryas wa Babuloni, Undi yari Satrap Abrocomas wa Trans-Euphrates (ni muri Siriya y ubu), uwa kane akaba Satrap Arbaces w Ubumedi aha buri wese yashobora kugira ingabo zitari munsi y ibihumbi 10. Nuko igikomangoma Cyrus kigira generari Clearchus umugaba w ingabo z abagereki b abacancuro mu gihe Ariaeus ayoboye infantry y abaperesi naho igikomangoma cyiyoborera abarwanira ku mafarashi mwenyewe. Uru rugamba rwiswe urugamba rwa Canaxa. Canaxa ni akajyi gato kari ku nkombe z umugezi munini wa Euphrates miles 50 mu majyaruguru ya Babuloni (ni muri Bagdad y ubu).

Ku itariki 3 Nzeri muri 401 BC nibwo urugamba rwambikanye, igikomangoma Cyrus yifuzaga ko intambara yihuta, intambara yari iteye uku, nkuko imirwanire y abaperesi yarimeze, umwami yabaga ari mu gice cyo hagati mu ngabo nibwo igikomangoma Cyrus yishyize hagati ayoboye abarwanira ku mafarashi kugira ngo aze guta muri yombi cyangwa kwiyicira umuvandimwe we Artaxerxes II, niko gushyira abagereki b abacancuro mu ruhembe rw I buryo naho ingabo ze zindi ziyobowe zijya mu ruhembe rw I bumoso. Abagereki bari bafite amabwiriza yo kurwana batsinda igice cyo bari bahanganye bagahita bahindukira bagatera mu rubavu rw Ingabo z umwami intambara ikihuta. Niko byagenze ku ruhande rwari ruhanganye n abagereki rwari ruyoboye na Satrap Tissaphernes zikibona imirongo y abagereki n ibyuma bibakingira mu gatuza no ku mutwe n amaguru muri Phalanx formation y urugamba bahiye ubwoba barahunga. Ikosa abagereki bakoze barabakurikiye mu gihe cy isaha imwe yose mu gihe bagombaga gukora nkuko bari bapanze urugamba. Aha nta kabuza bari batsinzwe, igikomangoma Cyrus cyashatse kwihutisha intambara ngo irangire vuba niko kwishora mu ngabo zarindaga umwami we n amafarashi ye niko kwica umukuru w abarindaga umwami ndetse anakomeretsa umwami nyamara nawe ntiyarenze aho kuko yishwe n uwitwaga Mithridates nuko igikomangoma Cyrus agwa aho ibye birangirira aho.

Abagereki bagarutse bishimira intsinzi niko kuza baje gutabara ikindi gice cy ingabo basanga intambara yarangiye kare bageze mu nkambi yabo basanga yasahuwe ndetse n ibyo kurya byari kubatunga byasahuwe, mu gitondo cya kare niko kumenya ko boss wabo igikomangoma Cyrus cyishwe ko intsinzi yabo yapfuye ubusa. Aha byababereye ihurizo, bari mu gihugu cy abanzi muri miles zirenga hafi 1 700 nta nshuti bafitemo uretse abanzi gusa, nibwo umwami Artaxerxes II yababwiraga ko bakomeza cyangwa bagahagarika intambara, gusa we ntiyarashishikajwe no gukurikirana abagereki kuko yari amaze guhosha imvururu ndetse ahugiye mu kwivuza ibikomere yari yatewe n intambara. Abagereki ntibari kwemera kumanika amaboko, ibi byari bisobanuye kwemera kwicwa, kugirwa abacakara n ibindi n ibindi udasize n igisebo gihambaye bari kuba bishyizeho. Nibwo abatware b abagereki b abacancuro bahisemo gukora retreat imwe ihambaye mu mateka y isi batangira icyo bise ANABASIS cyangwa se urugendo rwerekeza mu majyaruguru y igihugu cy ubuperesi berekeza ku Nyanja yirabura cyangwa The Black Sea, urugendo rutaboroheye kurusha intambara bari barwanye kuko mu ntambara ya Canaxa hari hakomeretse umurwanyi 1 nawe kandi bidakabije ariko aha, aha bari bagiye kuhatikirira bimwe bikomeye.

Mu ruhererekane rw inkuru y aba bagereki ibihumbi icumi, naha ducumbikiye igice cyacyo cya gatatu aho nyuma tuzakomezanya igice cya kane.

N akagaruka

Mugire amahoro y Imana n abane namwe!!!!

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ANABASIS THE TEN THOUSANDS MARCH IGICE CYA KABIRI

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Nkuko twari twababwiye mu gice kibanziriza iki, turakomereza ku gice cya kabiri cy iyi nkuru ivuga ku rugendo rw abasirikare 10 000 b abacancuro bakomokaga mu Bugiriki. Utarasomye inkuru ibanza dore aha niho wayisanga ugasoma ubundi ukabona gusobanukirwa ibi bigiye gukurikira ….. Niba utarasomye igice cya mbere cyangwa se ushaka kwiyibutsa kugira ngo ubashe kujyana natwe ukibyibuka mu nkuru yacu tugiye gutangira wasoma aha kanda kuri iyi link  https://yegob.rw/anabasis-the-ten-thousands-march-igice-cya-mbere/

 

Nyuma y urupfu rw Umwami w igihangange wategekaga ubumedi n ubuperesi Darius II wo mu muryango w aba Achaemenid wari ufite abahungu babiri uw imfura akaba Artaxerxes II II Mnemon na Igikomangoma Cyrus  the Younger mu murwa mukuru wabo wa Persepolis yari asize araze Artaxerxes II ubwami bw abami bw igihangange muri icyo gihe bwari ku buso bungana n ibirometero kare bisaga miriyoni eshanu n ibihumbi Magana atanu (5 500 000 km2). Ubu butaka bwari bugari bugizwe na Satrap (Intara cyangwa se Provinces) zigera nko mu 120 bwaheraga mu majyepfo muri Misiri bukazamuka bukagera kku mipaka n Ubugereki bugafata Aziya yo hagati ugakomeza Babuloni ukageza ku Buhinde.

Nyuma yuko mukuru we afashe ubutegetsi, Igikomangoma Cyrus  yatawe muri yombi na mukuru we ariko aza gucika ahungira mu ntara yari abereye Satrap ya Sardis/Sarde ahageze atangira gushaka igisirikare cyari kumufasha kugera ku ngoma agahirika mukuru we utari ukunzzwe cyane. Ibi yabishingiraga ku kuba yari intyoza azi no gutegeka ariko ikirushije akaba yaranakundwaga na nyina (Umugabekazi) ari nawe wifuzaga ko Igikomangoma Cyrus  ari we uba umwami mu cyimbo cya mukuru we Mnemon. Uyu Igikomangoma Cyrus  ku myaka ye 25 yari yarasimbuye Satrap Tissaphernes ku bu butegetsi bw intara ya Sardis bituma basa nkaho bagirana ubushyamirane. Aha Igikomangoma Cyrus  agambiriye gufata ubutegetsi bwa mukuru we, yitwaje ko agamije kurwanya abanzi b intara ye nuko agura abacancuro benshi kugira ngo baze bamufashe kurinda intara yategekaga, Umwami we yabonaga ari ikibazo kiri hagati ya Igikomangoma Cyrus  na Tissaphernes asa nkubitwara gake nubwo atariyishimiye ko bashyamirana. Ahagana muri 401 BC nibwo abacancuro b abagereki babonye ko mubyukuri Igikomangoma Cyrus  Atari agamije kurinda intara ye ko ahubwo yapangaga kwerekeza I Babuloni akanajya mu murwa mukuru, bakibimenya nibwo Igikomangoma Cyrus  yababwiye ko aza kubishyura menshi kurenza ayo yari yabemereye niko guhita abishyura amezi ane abizeza n ibindi byinshi. Nk abacancuro iby ibibazo byavuka bya politiki ntibyabarebaga ariko nabwo bagombaga kwirinda icyatuma bashirira ku icumu mu gihugu cya kure cy amahanga.

Nubwo aba bose bitwa ibihumbi cumi (10 000) nyamara bararengaga kuko babarirwaga hafi ibihumbi cumi na kimwe (11 000). Mu ngabo Igikomangoma Cyrus yarafite harimo:

  1. Abahoplites 4000 bari bayobowe na Xenias w umunya Arcadia
  2. Abahoplites 1500 ndetse na light infantry bayobowe na Proxenus w i Boeotia
  3. Abahoplites 1000 bayobowe na Sophaenetus w umunya Stymphalia
  4. Abahoplites 500 bayobowe na Socrates w umunya archian Atari Socrates w umuphilosophe
  5. Abahoplites 300 n abapeltasts bayobowe na Pasion w umunya megaran
  6. Abahoplites 1000, abathracians b abapeltasts 800, abarwanisha imiheto 200 b abanyacrete n abandi 2000 baturutse Xenias n i Pason bayobowe na Clearchus w umunyasparte
  7. Abahoplites 300 bayobowe na Sosis w i Syracusan
  8. Abahoplites 700 bayobowe na Chrisophus w umunyasparte
  9. Abahoplites 1000 hamwe n abanya Thessalian b abapeltasts bayobowe na Menon
  10. Abagereki 400 biyomoye cyangwa se bigumuye kuri Artaxerxes II

Ukuyeho igisirikare cyo ku butaka, Igikomangoma Cyrus cyari kinafite abarwanyi bo mu mazi aho bari bayobowe n aba admiral. Admiral ni izina rikomatanyije ry icyarabu “amir al-bahr” rivuga commander of the sea mu Kinyarwanda bivuga Umutware w inyanja ndetse n ikilatini “Admirabilis” bivuga admirable cyangwa “admiratus” bivuga admired, aba ku rwego rw ubutaka ukaba wabagereranya n abagenerari mu gisirikare kirwanira ku butaka. Aha igikomangoma Cyrus yarafite amato asaga 60 aho igice cya mbere cyari kigizwe n amato 35 ayobowe na Admiral Pythagoras w umunyasparte naho ikindi gice cya kabiri cyari kigizwe n amato 25 yari ayobowe na Tamos w umunyegiputa, nuko igikomangoma Cyrus afite n abarwanyi b abaperesi basaga ibihumbi makumyabiri (20 000) bayobowe n umugenerari w umuperesi witwaga Ariaeus.

Reka nanone tube tugarukiye aha n ah ubutaha mu gice cyacu cya gatatu.

Mugire amahoro y Imana!!!

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