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Abahanzi nyarwanda bakundwa n’abakobwa benshi mu Rwanda

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Mu Rwanda hari abahanzi benshi baririmba bagashimisha imbaga nyinshi y’abafana babo gusa akenshi benshi bashimisha igitsina gore muri rusange kuko usanga aribo basabwa n’amarangamutima menshi mu gihe aba bahanzi barimo kuririmba. Hano twabakusanyirije amwe mu mafoto y’abahanzi nyarwanda bakundwa n’abakobwa benshi hano mu Rwanda.

1. THE BEN

2. MEDDY

3. ANDY BUMUNTU

4. YVAN BURAVAN

5. NEL NGABO

6. SHAFFY

 

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Reba urutonde rw’inyubako zihenze cyane ku isi #RwOt

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Inzu ni kimwe mu bintu bihenda kuva itangijwe kubakwa kugeza isojwe,ndetse abenshi bazi ko inzu ndende cyane arizo ziba zihenze c kurusha izindi muri iy’isi,gusa ibyo bitandukanye n’ukuri tugendeye ku bushakashatsi bwakozwe n’ikinyamakuru cy’ubukungu cyo muri Autriche kitwa WirtschaftsBlatt ,bugamije  kugaraza inyubako zihenze kurusha izindi mu isi.

ubwo bushakashatsi bugaragaza ko  mu nzu 17 zihenze ku isi . inzu ndende kurusha izindi iri i Dubai,yitwa  Burj Khalifa ifite metero 828 , ntabowo irangwa kuri uru rutonde.Dore uko uru rutonde rwifashe.

 

 

17. Stade y’i Wembley (UK)

 © CC BY-SA 3.0

Iyi stade yakira abantu 90 000 ikaba yaratwaye akayabo  ka miliayaridi imwe na na managatatu z’ama Euro (1,3 Billion) .,nyamara mu bunini irutwa na Comp Nou na Estadio Azteca (Mexique ) ndetse na Soccer City i Johannesburg

16.Umunara wa Taipei 101  muri Taïwan

izwi nka  Taipei World Financial Center yuzuye mu mwaka wa 2004 ndetse muri uwo mwaka yabaye inzu yambere ndende ku isi,kugira ngo yuzure yatwaye Miliyaridi imwe na magana atanu z’ama euro(1,5 billion ) nyamara isumbwa na  Burj Khalifa y’ Idubai(inzu ndende ku isi).

 © trcheng/Wikimedia Commons

15.Palazzo i Las vegas

Palazzo ni Cassino yuzuye mu mwaka wa 2007,ifite ibyumba 300 n’uburebure bwa metero 196,yuzuye itwaye miliyiridi imwe na maganatanu z’ama Euro (1,5 billion).

 © Alex Proimos/Creative Commons

14.Umunara wa Bank mu bushinwa!(Hong Kong)

Bank of China Tower iyi nzu yuzuye mu maka w’1990,ifite metero 367 ikaba yaruzuye itwaye akayabo ka miliyaridi imwe na maganatandatu z’ama Euro (1,6 Billion)

 © Wing/Wikimedia Commons

13.Princess Tower Dubai

ifite uburebure bwa metero 413,yuzuye mu mwaka  wa 2012 ,itwaye miliyaridi imwe na maganatandatu z’ama euro (1,6 billion ).

 © KACP3Rm3 - Creative Commons

12.Bellagio Las Vegas

yatunganyirijwe ikiyaga cya hectare zirenga 3 kuko iri mu butayu bw’i Nevada yubaswe ku ma Euro angana na miliyaridi imwe na maganarindwi (1,7 billion).

 © Brocken Inaglory/CC

11.Antilia i Bombay

Ifite uburebure bwa metero 173,iri mu mugi w’ubukungu w’igihugu cy’ubuhindi.yubaswe ku ma Euro  angana na miliyaridi imwe na managacyenda (1,9 billion).

 © Krupasindhu Muduli/CC

10.City of Dreams i Macao

 © EyePress News

yubaswe kuri miliyaridi 2 z’ama Euro (2 billions )

9.Venetian Macau i Macao

Venetian ni iya sociyete yitwa Las vegas Sands ,ikabba igizwe na hotel ndetse n’akabyiniro kanini cyane ,yuzuye itwaye ama Euro angana na miliyaridi 2 na managabili (2,2 billion).

 © gkpics/CC

8.Palace of the Parliament i Bucarest cyangwa  palais du Parlement

Iyi ni inzu iri muri Romania,Ni iya kabiri mu nzu ndende z’ubutegetsi  inyuma ya Panthagone,yubaswe itwaye  ama Euro miliyaridi 2 na maganatatu.(2,3 billions)

 © Marco Cristofori / Robert Harding Premium / Robert Harding

7.Wynn Resorts i Las Vegas

 © Almc1217/CC

Iyi ifite ibyumba  2 700 ndetse n’utubyiniro dukabakaba 45 kandi tugerekeranye nayo yuzuye itwaye ama Euro miliyiridi 2 na maganane (2,4 billions).

 

6.One World Trade Center i New York

Niyo nzu yakabiri ihenze muri USA,yasimbujwe ebyiri zakubiswe hasi n’ibitero by’abiyahuzi muri 2001.Yuzuye hakoreshejwe ama Euro miliyaridi ebyiri na mananinani (2,8 billions)

 © Ariarmstrong / CC

5. The Shard i Londres

 © David Dixon/CC

Yatwaye miliyaridi ebyiri na manacyenda z’ama Euro (2,9 Billions)

4.  Cosmopolitan i Las Vegas

ifite ibyumba 3000,yubaswe kuri miliyaridi eshatu n’ijana z’ama Euro (3,1 Billions)

 © Cygnusloop99/CC

3. Emirates Palace Hotel i Abou Dabi

Yatwaye miliyaridi 3 na maganatatu z’ama Euro ,ifite ibyumba 302 gusa

 © Poco a poco / CC

2.Resorts World Sentosa i Singapore.

Iyi nzu ifite hotel,ahakorerwa ubucuruzi,akabyiniro ndetse Universal Studio Singapore…, yuzuye kubw’ama Euro miliyaridi 4 .

 © William Cho

1.Marina Bay Sands  i Singapour

Ifite piscine yitwa Infinity Pool  ,ifite metero 340,ihuza inyubako 3 ziyigize  ,iyi n’inyubako buri wese atangarira  yubaswe ku ma Euro miliyaridi enye na maganatandatu (4,6 billion)

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Boeing B-17 FLYING FORTRESS

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Boeing B-17 mu kabyiniriro kayo “Flying Fortress” mu Kinyarwanda bisobanura inzu y umutamenwa iguruka. Impamvu nuko yari bombardier ariko ikirenzeho ikaba yarabashaga kwirindira umutekano aho yari ifite imbunda zigera muri 13 za 12.7 mm machine guns zivuye kuri 5 ubwo yatangiraga gukorwa. Ikindi nuko iyi yarasiraga mu ntera yo hejuru kure cyane ndetse inanyaruka ku muvuduko wari ntagereranywa ikindi kandi inakomeye kuko yabashaga gusubira ku bibuga by indege yahagurukiyeho yarashweho bikomeye cyane n umwanzi abayigize batahungabanyijwe cyane n amasau yabo bahanganye.

Boeing B 17 yagize ibikorwa bikomeye uhereye kuri version yayo ya mbere kugeza kuya nyuma. Gusa iyi ni indege yamamaye mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi (WW II) ubwo yakoreshwaga iyogoza amato, indege ndetse n inganda z abanzi bari bahanganye n ibihugu byishize hamwe ngo birwanye abanazi n abayapani. Mu matoni y amabombe yarashwe ndetse yasutswe n indege z abanyamerika mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi ku butaka bw abanazi n ubwo bagenzuraga muri toni miriyoni 1.5 zasutswe n indege, B 17 niyo yasutse ibisasu byinshi aho ibarirwa mu matoni bihumbi 640 by amabombe yituye ku butaka bw abanazi mu ntambara ya kabiri y isi. Iyi ndege yakozwe n abanyamerika ahagana mu mwaka w I 1935 ariko itangira kuguruka 1938 nuko ihagarikwa mu gukoreshwa bwanyuma mu mwaka w i 1968 mu gisirikare cya Brazil kirwanira mu kirere.

Mu 1934 tariki 8 z ukwa munani United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) yashyize kw isoko ipiganwa ku kubaka indege z intambara zagombaga kuba zifite engines/ moteri nyinshi zagombaga gusimbura izitwaga Martin B-10. Izi  bazishakaga ngo zijye gutanga umusaada ku barwanira mu kirere mu birwa bya Hawaii, Panama ndetse na Alaska. Ibisabwa byari ukuba yatwara imizigo y amabombe iremereye cyane ku butumburuke bwa metero 3 000 mu gihe cy amasaha 10 igendera ku muvuduko wa 200 mph cyangwa se 320km/h.Ikindi USAAC yifuzaga nubwo bitari mu bisabwa byari ukuba iyi ndege yagenda ibirometero 3 200 ku muvuduko w ibirometero 400 ku isaha (400 km/h). Aha Boeing yagiye mu ipiganwa ihanganye na Douglas yari yazanye type yayo ya Douglas DB-1 ndetse na Martin Model 146 ku kibuga cy indege cya Wilbur Wright muri Dayton, Ohio muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Boeing B 17 Model 299 yabo yari yakozwe n abenjenyeri bayobowe na E. Gifford  Emery na Edward Curtis Wells ifite imbunda 5 za 30 caliber (7.62mm) machine guns ishobora kwikorera toni 2.2 by ibisasu iyi ndege yari itwawe na moteri 4 za Pratt & Whitney R-1690 buri imwe ikora 750hp (600 Kw) ku butumburuke bwa metero 2 100.

Tariki 27 Nyakanga 1935 umunyamakuru Richard Williams w ikinyamakuru Seattle Times nyuma yo kubona izo mbunda B 17 Model 299 niwe wavuze ati iyi ni 15 ton flying fortress niko guhimbwa “Flying Fortress”. Bwa mbere yagurutse tariki 28 Nyakanga 1935 itwawe n umukuru w aba pilote bakora amatests muri Boeing witwaga Leslie Tower. Tariki 20 Kanama 1935 nibwo iyi prototype ya B 17 yahagurutse iva ku kibuga cy indege cya Seattle yerekeza ku cya Wright Field mu masaha 9 n iminota 3 aha ni mu ntera y ibirometero 3 800 aho yagenderaga ku muvuduko wa 406 km/h aho yasumbaga umuvuduko wari watswe mu marushanwa y isoko isumba kure mu bubasha iza DB-1 ndetse na Model 146. Gusa tariki 30 Ukwakira 1935 nibwo Major Ployer Peter Hill wo muri USAAC ndetse na Les Tower bagurutsaga Model 299 bwa kabiri muri test yayo ya kabiri gusa bakibagirwa gukuramo icyitwa “gust locks” ibi byatumye indege ibura control iri mu kirere niko gukora impanuka ibica bombi. Iyi mpanuka niyo yatumye Boeing idatsindira iri soko niko kuriha Douglas kuri 58 200$ yicyo gihe ubu ahwanye na miriyoni 1.09 $ y ubu. Mu gihe Boeing yagombaga kubona $99 620 bihwanye na miriyoni 1.86 y amadollars yubu gusa ibi ntibyayibujije kuza kugurwa nyuma ubwo Ubwongereza na Amerika byinjiraga mu ntambara ya kabiri yose. Ahabanza zagiye zigira ibibazo byinshi kugeza zigeze aho ziba agatangaza niko kuyogoza burayi bwari bwarigaruriwe n abanazi no gusuka amatoni y ibisasu mu mbere mu Budage bwa Hitler ubundi arashoberwa karahava zisenya bidasubirwaho inganda n imijyi bye. Izi zarekeye gukorwa mu mwaka 1945 nyuma yuko bamaze gukora izigera mu 12 731 zikaba zarakorerwaga muri Boeing Plant 2 yabaga Seattle, Washington (BO) ndetse na California. Buri imwe yabaga yagurwa amafaranga angana na $ 238,329 (1945) ariyo miriyoni 2.7$ mu yo mu 2018.

Ngibi bimwe mu biranga B 17 mu bipimo byayo:

  • Crew (10): Pilot, co-pilot, navigator, bombardier/nose gunner, flight engineer/top turret gunner, radio operator, waist gunners (2), ball turret gunner, tail gunner
  • Uburebure: 66 m
  • Uburebure bw ibaba: 62 m
  • Uburebure: 82 m
  • Ubuso bw ibaba: 92 m2
  • Ibiro byayo idahetse: 16,391 kg
  • Ibiro byayo ihetse: 24,500 kg
  • Ibiro byinshi byanyuma yahagurukana: 29,700 kg
  • Imbaraga za moteri: 4 × Wright R-1820-97 “Cyclone” turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp (895 kW) kuri buri imwe
  • Ibipanga bya moteri: 3-bladed Hamilton-Standard constant-speed propeller

  • IMIKORERE
  • Maximum speed:462 km/h, 249 kn
  • Cruise speed: 293 km/h, 158 kn
  • Range: 3,219 km hamwe na 2,700 kg byaza bombload
  • Service ceiling: 10,850 m
  • Rate of climb:6 m/s
  • Wing loading:7 kg/m2
  • Power/mass: 150 W/kg

Armament

  • Imbunda:13 × .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns
  • Bombs:
    • Short range missions (<400 mi): 3,600 kg
    • Long range missions (≈800 mi): 2,000 kg
    • Overload: 7,800 kg

 

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Amateka

URUGAMBA RWA DIEN BIEN PHU (IGICE CYA MBERE)

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Mortiers, mitrailleuses, urufaya rw amabombe byatwituragaho ubutitsa uko bukeye nuko bwije, yari mw ijoro ariko twabashaga kubona aba vietm Minh bamanuka imisozi ndetse abashinzwe kurashisha ibibunda biremereye bamisha amasasu yabo ku birindiro by abafaransa bari bakambitse aha muri Dien Bien Phu mu ntera ya km 16 z uburebure ndetse n umunani (8) z ubugari aha hari hahuriye abasirikare ibihumbi 94 (94 000) aho abavietmihn bari ibihumbi 80 (80 000) naho abafaransa bari ibihumbi 14 (14 000). Uru rwari urugamba rukomeye rwari rubayeho nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi. Aha amategeko y intambara abavietminh ntibayumvaga nyuma y intsinzi iruhanyije bari bagize niko gufata bunyago abasirikare ibihumbi 12 (12 000) b abafaransa bakabica babatoteje harokotse mbarwa hataha abasaga gato ibihumbi 3 (3 000) gusa buzuye intimba, ubwoba n ikimwaro bari bakuye muri Vietnam aha hari mu 1954. Aha abafaransa bishwe barashwe bari basaga gato ibihumbi 8 (8 000) nabwo babakuyemo inzara n amenyo nyuma yo gufungirwa mu mazi mu gihe kitari gito.

Intambara nka kimwe mu bikorwa byaranzwe ndetse bwamenyerewe mu mibereho y ikiremwamuntu zagiye zihindura imiterere y ubutegetsi ndetse n imibereho y abantu mu gace kamwe cyangwa akandi mw isi ndetse no mu ruhando mpuzamahanga. Dien Bien Phu aha ni hamwe mu hapfukamishije abafaransa mu mateka y intambara mu bihe bya vuba ndetse nyuma y intambara ya kabiri y isi kuko aha naho bapfukamishijwe bikomeye n igisirikare cy abanazi ba Hitler Wehrmacht kigizwe na Heer yo ku butaka, Kriegsmarine bo mu mazi ndetse na Luftwaffe yarwaniraga mu kirere. Intambara yo muri Vietnam yiswe the First Indochina war aho yamaze imyaka isaga 8 yashyizweho akadomo n intsinzi y abarwanyi b abavietmihn bamaze guha isomo rya gisirikare abafaransa bari abakoroni bagataha bimyiza imoso ari bo barwanye intambara ndetse n abanyamerika babateraga inkunga y amafaranga aho batanze isaga miriyoni 300 z amadollars. Ibi byose byigisha ko abagenerari b ibihugu bikomeye mu bya gisirikare bakunda gusuzugura abo bahanganye nabo bibwira ko nta bushobozi mu gukora intambara bafite cyangwa se bashoboye ibi bikaganisha ku kurimburira rimwe ingabo zabo bayoboye no guhindura igice cyaho intsinzi ya gisirikare igana. Mbere yuko tuvuga ku mutwe w inkuru yacu y uyu munsi, reka turebere hamwe inkomoko ndetse n intandaro by uru rugamba duhereye atari kure cyane mu mizi kugira ngo tugire ishusho y imvano y iyi ntambara.

Ibi byose byatangiye mu kinyejana cya 19 ubwo ibihugu byo mu Burayi byiyita “Old Continent” byajyaga mu masiganwa yo kwigwizaho ibihugu byo gukoroniza ngo babone aho bakura ibikoresho nkenerwa basubiza mu bihugu byabo ngo bahaze inganda zabo zari zicyaduka, nibwo abafaransa nabo batangiraga ukwisuka muri Indochine agace kari muri Aziya ahagana muri 1859 ndetse mu 1885 bari baramaze kwigarurira ibice binini byaho. Indochina y abafaransa yashinzwe ku itariki 17 Ukwakira 1887 aho bahurizaga hamwe Vietnam (yarigizwe na Annam, Tonkin, Cochinchina), ubwami bwa Cambodia, na Laos  iyi yongereweho nyuma y intambara Franco-Siamese War mu mwaka w i 1893 bakabigira colonies zabo. Urugamba rwa Dien Bien Phu rwaje nk iherezo ry ubukoroni bw abafaransa muri Indochina, ariko ntibahavuye mu mahoro byasabye kunyura mu ntambara intambara itaroroshye cyangwa ngo yihute kuko yararambye imara imyaka umunani (8) yose ishyamiranyije abavietminh ndetse n abafaransa bari banafite mu ngabo zabo abalaos, abanyamaroc, abanyarijeriya, abanyacambodia ndetse n abatais. Nyamara intambara iza nk igisubizo cya nyuma cya nyuma kuko izindi nzira z ibiganiro mbese zose zose zananiwe impande ebyiri zishyamiranye zitumvikana cyangwa zitabyumva kimwe.

Nshuti reka igice cya mbere tugihinire aha, ntuzacikwe n ibindi bice aho tuzavuga byimbitse kuri uru rugamba ndetse n intandaro zayo tutibagiwe n ingaruka zayiturutseho.
Murakoze murakarama!!!!

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Umuhanzi Davido yahishuriye abafana be uko yataye ishuri akaza kurisubizwamo.

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Umuhanzi wo muri Nigeria David Adedeji Adeleke wamamaye nka Davido yavuze ukuntu yasubiye mu ishuri kubera igitsure cya papa we ubwo yaganiraga n’abakunzi n’abafana be mu kiganiro baheruka kugirana.

Ni ikiganiro cyabaye imbona nkubone ku rubuga rwa Instagram maze asobanura neza ko yagiye mu ishuri kugirango abashe kunyura se umubyara kuko atashakaga kubona umuhunguri atakomeje amashuri, Davido nawe yasobanuye ko yabyemeye kugirango nawe abashe gukarishya akazi ke ka buri munsi ko kuririmba.

Ubwo yakomezaga kugenda agurana ibitekerezo n’abari bamukurikiye yanakomeje ku banyamuziki batumye agira amatsiko yo gukurikirana umuziki ndetse bikaza no kurangira awugize umwuga ubu umutunze ukaba unamwinjiriza amafaranga menshi.

Davido yavuze ko abahanzi Don Jazzy na D’banj aribo bamuzamuriye amarangamutima yamwerekeje mu muziki, nubwo uyu muhanzi yaje guhagarika umuziki we kugirango akore ugushaka k’umubyeyi we..

Mu mwaka wa 2011 umuhanzi Davido nibwo yasubitse akazi k’umuziki maze akomereza amashuri ye muri kaminuza ya Babcock aho yigaga ibijyanye na muzika aho icyo gihe umubyeyi we wamusunikiye gukomeza kwiga ari nawe wamutangiye amafaranga y’ishuri.

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Amateka

IMBUNDA YA M 16

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M 16 Rifle ni imwe mu ntwaro cyane cyane imbunda yazamuye ibendera rya Amerika mu mateka y isi. Iyi mbunda ni 5.56mm, M 16 aho yakomotse kuri ArmaLite AR-15 yo muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika, iya mbere yiyi yari ifite magazine ijyamo amasasu 20 nyuma yaho mu 1969 M 16 A1 yahawe bolt-assist igizwe na chrome ndetse inahabwa magazine y amasasu 30 kandi ikaba automatic. Iyi mbunda yahimbwe n uwitwa Eugene Stoner afatanyije na L. James Sullivan mu 1959 mu gihugu cy igihangange cya Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika bikozwe n inganda nyinshi harimo nka za:

  • Colt’s Manufacturing Company
  • Daewoo Precision Industries
  • FN Herstal
  • Bushmaster
  • H&R Firearms
  • General Motors Hydramatic Division
  • Elisco ndetse na,
  • U.S. Ordnance

Zatangiye gukorwa mu 1963 kugeza magingo aya, muri 2003 hamaze gukorwa izisaga miriyoni 8. Iyi ni imbunda wakoresha nkuko Avtomat Kalashnikov (AK 47) yanyanyagiye hose niyi nayo wayikoresha wigishwa bike ubundi ibisigaye aba ari nko gukina umukino wa dame unyereza amapiyo ku yandi. Iyi yakoreshejwe cyangwa yarwanye mu ntambara zose abanyamerika bishoyemo nk intambara yo muri Vietnam, Somali civil war, Salvadoran Civil war, ahandi ni muri Korea, Rhodesian Bush war, First Congo war, Iraq war, Gulf ndetse n izindi nyinshi.

Aha rero tugana ku musozo w iyi nkuru reka turebe ibigize iyi ntwaro y agatangaza y abanyamerika, imbunda wakwigondera ku mafaranga atari munsi ya 500 y amadollars y amanyamerika.

Specifications (M16)
Ibiro ipima 2.89 kg (unloaded)
3.40 kg (loaded)
Uburebure 1,003 mm
Uburebure bwa Barrel 508 mm

Cartridge 5.56×45mm NATO (M193)
Caliber 5.56 mm
Action cyangwa uko ikora Gas-operated cyangwa rotating bolt
Umuvuduko wo kurasa 700–950 rounds/min cyclic sustained
45–60 rounds/min semi-automatic
Umuvuduko isasu risoohokana 960 m/s
Effective firing range 550 m point target
800 m Area target
Maximum firing range 3,600 m
Feed system STANAG magazine
20-round detachable box magazine:
96 g empty / 335 g full

30-round detachable box magazine:
117 g empty / 480 g full

Beta C-Mag 100-round double-lobed drum:
1,000 g empty / 2,180 g full

Murakoze mugire ibihe byiza!

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